Thứ Ba, 22 tháng 12, 2009

The Sex Instinct and The Sex Appeal Today.

The Sex Instinct and The Sex Appeal Today.

The idea to write this book came to me during the time I have accessed on the networking when I was single .I have to admit that for a couple of years I was unhappy about sex when I was on my early day.No I was not abnormal .I was certain that the problem I have faced with the man ,the woman I met on my life.Now I am feeling something very interesting .Somehow that the God 're pointing me the most of the world in which something must be happened with :"The Sex Instinct and the Sex Appeal Today'.
I hadn't learnt about the sexology at schools in a small country before.In witness , I am veryself-conscious about myself eventhough I am not an adult anymore
Despite feeling this way,I know for a fact that I was not unique as we have known we have been living in a chaos and a very complicated world.What the world 's gonna tobe without sex .By the end of life,man could have devoted their lives without sex or not .When the life can't help stand for the sex problem starting of personal discovery back to the recent time rather than the sports,foods.,friends,familys and loves as esteem.
With someone,something,having sex is important .I am not at all clear that they are right or not.But be sure to make a clear that man could have sex together with the truly Love in our lives.Many people had have sex and hadn't have sex ,but why the half people among them were dumped into their lives.Obviously they hadn't found the truly Love around sex yet.
.But to my surprise ,I knew a girl who was only 17 years of age.She is considered not too young tobe entitled to give the relevant words around sex in our lives .Dealing that matter, you are entitled to let them know that :" Trick fine ,Treat well" . You should be dignified in your speech in the response until we have known we can bye for cycle ,motorbike of which the revelance of plane ,air crafts should be reached to our ambitious in order not to make mistakes to abuse words even though we are in that type of people feeling man/woman are stupid upon having sex with us just one night which is known as :"one night stand","Match night ","Game Night",Loving night","Blind date ",Owned night""My Mag night","Battle night"...consciously .



One-night stand
Originally, a one-night stand referred to a single night theatre performance, usually by a guest group on tour. Today, however, the term is more commonly understood as a single sexual encounter between individuals, where neither individual has any immediate intention or expectation of establishing a long-term sexual or romantic relationship.
Blind date
A blind date is a date where the people involved have not met each other previously. The match could have been arranged by mutual friends, relatives or by a dating system.
Blind dating is considered by psychologists to be one of the most stressful emotional experiences, mainly due to a great lack of self-confidence from both parties and the inevitable fear of the unknown.
Blind dates are becoming more commonplace following the rise of the Internet, when people who have met in chatrooms, Instant Messaging or forums finally agree to meet in person. This type of date may not be considered 'blind' since the people have already communicated with each other.

Temper

Temperare (to mix correctly) is the Latin origin of words like "temperature" and "tempering"; it and "tempo" come, in turn, from tempus (time or season). Thus, the word "temper" can refer (at least informally) to any time- and temperature-sensitive process (as for chocolate tempering or tempered glass), a material's thermo-mechanical history (including cold work and cryogenic hardening), or even its composition.
Temper may mean:
• Tempering, in metallurgy, a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys; also a method for producing toughened glass
• Among archaeologists, non-plastic additions to clay, which are used to control shrinkage prior to firing into ceramic vessels.
• Tempering, in cooking, refers to the frying of spices (particularly in the cuisines of South Asia) to release their aroma; called chaunk in Hindi, or Tadka.
• Musical temperament describes tuning systems which allow fixed-pitch instruments, such as the piano, greater flexibility in changing keys.
• The Well-Tempered Clavier is a composition by Bach
• Tempered representation in mathematics
• Temperament, in psychology, the general nature of an individual's personality
• Tempering, in chocolate manufacture, a method of increasing the shine and durability of chocolate couverture
• A display of anger
• Temper (band), an American dance music group
• Temper is the name of a Demo song by the musical group System of a Down
TEMPER is the name of an atmospheric propagation computer model developed by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab
Bad -Tempered :
When the Bad -Tempered are got out of our body so I recognise it in my memory of which we can be complicated combining sex with "SEX Homornes"besides the occupation:Nails,Sales,Accountancy/Accounting,Pulisher,Director,Writer,Waiter,Singer,Model,FootballPlayer ,Miss/Mrs.World.,Fortunate Teller,.....as we continually concern about the weight,height,pharmacies,wisdom,brain,....in their lives to make them glory because of their beauty of nature.even though they don't consider it as talents,beauty ...in order to earn their living by their sex hormones.
Talent
Talent is generally considered to be an innate, personal gift possessed by relatively few people. In essence, someone with talent has an aptitude to do certain things.
Talent (in the sense of natural ability or giftedness) is not the same as skill, which is a learned process, and one which is enhanced or inhibited by an underlying talent. It may also refer to:
Entertainment
• A show-business personality or group of them
• Talent agent, a person who finds jobs for actors, musicians, models, and other people in various entertainment businesses
• Talent manager (or personal manager), one who guides the career of artists in the entertainment business
• Talent scout, responsible for finding and developing talent
• Talent show, a live performance spectacle (sometimes on TV) where contestants perform acting, singing, dancing, acrobatics and other art forms
• Tarento, the Japanese pronunciation of the word, a Japanese show-business personality
• The Got Talent series of television shows, in several national versions
• Talent, a 1978 play by Victoria Wood
• Talent (comics), a comic book series written by Christopher Golden and Tom Sniegoski, drawn by Paul Azaceta.
• Talent Series, a series of books written by Zoey Dean
• Talent, the first novel in that series.
• Young Talent Time (1971-1989), an Australian television variety program on Network Ten
People
• Billy Talent, a Canadian rock group from Toronto
• Jim Talent (born 1956), American politician, former Senator from Missouri.
Places
• Talent, Oregon, a city in the United States
Other
• Talent management - the recruitment and management of talented workers
• Talent Zoo (or TalentZoo.com), a recruitment company and job search engine specializing in the communications industry, including the advertising, marketing, public relations, broadcasting, and publishing sectors
• Fresh Talents Music Project, an education project based in Rijeka, Croatia
• Talent (measurement), an ancient unit of mass and value
• Attic talent ancient Greek coin
• Talent (train), a model of train manufactured by Bombardier
Beauty
Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning, or satisfaction.[citation needed] Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture, for perfection.[citation needed]
The experience of "beauty" often involves the interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being.[citation needed] Because this is a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder." In its most profound sense, beauty may engender a salient experience of positive reflection about the meaning of one's own existence.[citation needed] A subject of beauty is anything that resonates with personal meaning.[citation needed]
The classical Greek adjective for "beautiful" was καλλός, kallos. The Koine Greek word for beautiful was ὡραῖος, hōraios, an adjective etymologically coming from the word ὥρα, hōra, meaning "hour." In Koine Greek, beauty was thus associated with "being of one's hour." A ripe fruit (of its time) was considered beautiful, whereas a young woman trying to appear older or an older woman trying to appear younger would not be considered beautiful. In Attic Greek, hōraios had many meanings, including "youthful" and "ripe old age."
Weight

In the physical sciences, the weight of an object is the magnitude, W, of the force that must be applied to an object in order to support it (i.e. hold it at rest) in a gravitational field. The weight of an object in static equilibrium equals the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on the object, less the effect of its buoyancy in any fluid in which it might be immersed. Near the surface of the Earth, the acceleration due to gravity is approximately constant; this means that an object's weight near the surface of the Earth is roughly proportional to its mass.
Height

Height is the measurement of vertical distance, but has two meanings in common use. It can either indicate how "tall" something is, or how "high up" it is. For example one could say "That is a tall building", or "That airplane is high up in the sky". These can both be referred to as the height of the object, as in "The height of the building is 50 m" or "The height of the airplane is 10,000 m". When used to describe how high something like an airplane or mountain peak is from sea level, height is more often called altitude. Height is measured along the vertical (y) axis between a specified point and another point.
Human height
Human height is the measurement of the length of the human body, from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head, when standing erect.
When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is usually due to gigantism or dwarfism; which are medical conditions due to specific genes or to endocrine abnormalities[citation needed].
In regions of extreme poverty or prolonged warfare, environmental factors like malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions. This is one reason that immigrant populations from regions of extreme poverty to regions of plenty may show an increase in stature, despite sharing the same gene pool.[citation needed]


Wisdom
Wisdom is knowledge of what is true or right coupled with just judgment as to action; sagacity, discernment, or insight. It is an ideal that has been celebrated since antiquity as the application of knowledge needed to live a good life[citation needed]. Beyond simply knowing/understanding what options are available, "Wisdom" provides the ability to differentiate between them and choose the one that is best. What this means exactly depends on the various wisdom schools and traditions claiming to help foster it. In general, these schools have emphasized various combinations of the following: knowledge, understanding, experience, discipline, discretion, and intuitive understanding, along with a capacity to apply these qualities well towards finding solutions to problems. In many traditions, the terms wisdom and intelligence have somewhat overlapping meanings; in others they are arranged hierarchically, with intelligence being necessary but not sufficient for wisdom.
Neo-Platonists like Cusanus, endorsed a 'docta ignorantia' in which the greatest wisdom was to recognize one's own ignorance of the divine[citation needed].
According to Rice (1958) two wisdom traditions can be identified in the Renaissance: Contemplative and prudential. Contemplative traditions, such as monastic traditions, emphasized meditation on one's own experience as a pathway to the divine: Augustine of Hippo was an early and influential figure in the Christian lineage of this tradition. The status of wisdom or prudence as a virtue is recognized in cultural, philosophical and religious sources as the judicious and purposeful application of knowledge that is valued in society. Charron (1601) was an influential Renaissance proponent of this wisdom tradition.
Brain
The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell.
Brains can be extremely complex. The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly 15–33 billion neurons depending on gender and age, linked with up to 10,000 synaptic connections each. Each cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells.
The brain controls the other organ systems of the body, either by activating muscles or by causing secretion of chemicals such as hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment. Some basic types of responsiveness are possible without a brain: even single-celled organisms may be capable of extracting information from the environment and acting in response to it. Sponges, which lack a central nervous system, are capable of coordinated body contractions and even locomotion. In vertebrates, the spinal cord by itself contains neural circuitry capable of generating reflex responses as well as simple motor patterns such as swimming or walking. However, sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information-integrating capabilities of a centralized brain.
Despite rapid scientific progress, much about how brains work remains a mystery. The operations of individual neurons and synapses are now understood in considerable detail, but the way they cooperate in ensembles of thousands or millions has been very difficult to decipher. Methods of observation such as EEG recording and functional brain imaging tell us that brain operations are highly organized, but these methods do not have the resolution to reveal the activity of individual neurons.
Human brain

The human brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. Enclosed in the cranium, it has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, a convoluted layer of neural tissue that covers the surface of the forebrain. Especially expanded are the frontal lobes, which are involved in executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the brain devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings.
Brain evolution, from the earliest shrewlike mammals through primates to hominids, is marked by a steady increase in encephalization, or the ratio of brain to body size. The human brain has been estimated to contain 50–100 billion (1011) neurons[citation needed], of which about 10 billion (1010) are cortical pyramidal cells.[citation needed] These cells pass signals to each other via approximately 100 trillion (1014)[citation needed] synaptic connections.
The brain monitors and regulates the body's actions and reactions. It continuously receives sensory information, and rapidly analyzes this data and then responds, controlling bodily actions and functions. The brainstem controls breathing, heart rate, and other autonomic processes. The neocortex is the center of higher-order thinking, learning, and memory. The cerebellum is responsible for the body's balance, posture, and the coordination of movement.
In spite of the fact that it is protected by the thick bones of the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. The most common forms of physical damage are closed head injuries such as a blow to the head, a stroke, or poisoning by a wide variety of chemicals that can act as neurotoxins. Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. More common are genetically based diseases[citation needed], such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and many others. A number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are widely thought to be caused at least partially by brain dysfunctions, although the nature of such brain anomalies is not well understood.

However man/woman are stupid ,why the remaning half think that they are in that type of people as agreed with this.Of course ,man/woman are weaker ,that is why they blaim on their patner of sex at a later day.They hope to demand their responbilites ,duties and obligations form their sex partner.Hardly had he/she have obligation when he/she was rarely watching every their words and every their bad -behaviours around sex means as :"Before Sex,after sex and the termination of sex".At last ,they are ending up:"Just one night"or "one moment "so that they could have gained a lot of experiences about sex or continually enjoy their lives with the another sex partner these days .

Don't be crazy if you are going to have sex today until you absolutely recognise sex for those who are spiritually happy .If



The heaven spiritual

Hell=--------------------------=-------------------
Success Heaven

then spirtuality = life

Success
Sprituallyness= -------------------------------.
Expectation of life


when we haven't seen that yet .I assume if you are still in virgin ,should you give your virginity away without any self-conscienty in order to achieve the revenues around sex whereof how much had you got of which I woulkd like to ask you.


*)Well-being:a good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterized by health, happiness, and prosperity; welfare: to influence the well-being of the nation and its people.
I don't know what makes :"well-being'.So far we have identified things that matter gonna well-being around sex.To make some evidences ,shall we be entittled the Pimp sex books and Pimp sex comments easily make you feel nothing 's gonna beter with sex is great.In addition conditional researching upon Pimp Sex videos and Quiz sex stories will make people feel that sex is perfect in our lives with a little "incestous "words even more very "Mentally" "aphosidiac .



What is sex :
Sex
Successful reproductive sex in animals results in the fusion of a sperm and egg cell.
In biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety (known as a sex). Sexual reproduction involves combining specialized cells (gametes) to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogametes), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist: male gametes are small, motile, and optimized to transport their genetic information over a distance, while female gametes are large, non-motile and contain the nutrients necessary for the early development of the young organism.
An organism's sex is defined by the gametes it produces: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience.
History of sexuality
Ancient civilizations

Many of the ancient civilisations provide evidence of developments in sexuality. In particular:
• Egypt: The couple Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, now buried in a joint Fifth-dynasty (2498-2345 BC) era tomb in Saqqara, Egypt, are the oldest recorded same-sex couple in human history. The Ancient Egyptians related the cult of phallus with Osiris. When Osiris' body was cut in 13 pieces, Seth scattered them all over Egypt and his wife Isis retrieved all of them except one, his penis, which was swallowed by a fish (see the Legend of Osiris and Isis). The phallus was a symbol of fertility, and the god Min was often depicted ithyphallic (with a penis).
• India: Ancient texts from Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism such as the Vedas reveal moral perspectives on sexuality, marriage and fertility prayers. The epics of ancient India, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, possibly from as early as 1400 BCE, later influenced Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan and South East Asian culture. They indicate that sex was considered a mutual duty between a married couple, but where sex was considered a private affair. The most publicly known sexual literature of India are the texts of the sixty-four arts.
• Mesopotamia: In ancient Mesopotamia, Ishtar was the primary Goddess of life, men and women, nature and fertility, sex, sexual power and birth. Ishtar was also the goddess of war and weapons and any victory was celebrated in her temples with offerings of produce and money as well as through a feast and orgy of sex and fornication with holy temple prostitutes.
• China: In the I Ching (The Book of Changes, a Chinese classic text dealing with what would be in the West termed metaphysics), sexual intercourse is one of two fundamental models used to explain the world. Heaven is described as having sexual intercourse with Earth. The male lovers of early Chinese men of great political power are mentioned in one of the earliest great works of philosophy and literature, the Zhuang Zi. China has had a long history of sexism, with even moral leaders such as Confucius giving extremely pejorative accounts of the innate characteristics of women.
• Japan: In perhaps the earliest novel in the world, the Genji Monogatari (Tale of Genji), dating back to around the 8th century AD, eroticism is treated as a central part of the aesthetic life of members of the nobility.
• Greece: In ancient Greece, the phallus, often in the form of a herma, was an object of worship as a symbol of fertility. One ancient Greek male idea of female sexuality was that women envied penises of males. Wives were considered as commodity and instruments for bearing legitimate children. They had to compete sexually with eromenoi, hetaeras and slaves in their own homes.
• Rome: Ancient Roman civilization included celebrations associated with human reproductive organs. Over time there emerged institutionalization of voluntary sex as well as prostitution. This resulted in a virtual sexual caste system in Roman civilization – different grades and degrees of sexual relationships. Apart from the legally wedded spouses, a number of males used to have Delicatue, mistresses of wealthy and prominent men. The next were the Famosae, mostly the daughters and even wives of the wealthy families who enjoyed sex for its own sake. There was another class known as Lupae, willing to have sexual union with anyone for a price. Copae were the serving girls in the taverns and inns and who did not mind being hired as bedmates for the night by travelers.
Modern developments

In contemporary academia, sexuality is studied in the fields of sexology and gender and sexuality studies, among many other fields.
Sexology, the study of sexual interests, behavior, and function, covers sexual development and sexual relationships including sexual intercourse. It also documents the sexualities of groups such as the disabled, children, and the elderly.[46]
Alfred Kinsey became interested in the different forms of sexual practices around 1933 when he developed the Kinsey Scale which ranges from 0 to 6, where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 is exclusively homosexual. His Kinsey Reports starting with the publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male in 1948 and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female in 1953 contributed to the sexual revolution of the 1960s.
Foucault
The French philosopher Michel Foucault wrote in The History of Sexuality (1976-1984) that the concept of "sexual" activities and sensations is historically (as well as regionally and culturally) determined. It is therefore part of a changing "discourse".[1][4][47][48][49] The sexual meanings (meanings of the erotic dimension of human sexual experience) are social and cultural constructs. They are made subjective only after cultural and social mediation.[50] As the main force conditioning human relationships, sex is essentially political. In any social context, the construction of a "sexual universe" is fundamentally linked to the structures of power.[4][50][51][52] The construction of sexual meanings is an instrument by which social institutions (religion, marketing, the educational system, psychiatry, etc.) control and shape human relationships.[47][48]
According to Foucault, sexuality began to be regarded as a conceptual part of human nature in the 19th century. Sexuality began to be used as a means to define normality and its boundaries, and to conceive everything outside those boundaries in the realm of psychopathology. In the 20th century, with the theories of Sigmund Freud and of sexology, the "not-normal" was seen more as a "discontent of civilization"[47][53] In a well known passage of his work, Foucault noted that the development of the notion of sexuality organized sex as a "fictitious unity" of "disparate parts, functions, behaviours, and feelings with no natural or necessary relation among them"; therefore the conception of what is "natural" is a social construct.[54][55] To escape such cultural "sexuality", Foucault suggested focusing on "bodies and pleasures".[54][56]


Sex steroid
Sex steroids, aka gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors[] Their effects are mediated by slow genomic mechanisms through nuclear receptors as well as by fast nongenomic mechanisms through membrane-associated receptors and signaling cascades[]. The term sex hormone is nearly always synonymous with sex steroid.
Production
Natural sex steroids are made by the (ovaries or testes), by adrenal glands, or by conversion from other sex steroids in other tissue such as liver or fat.
Synthetic sex steroids
There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids. Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception. Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen. Specific compounds that have partial agonist activity for steroid receptors, and therefore act in part like natural steroid hormones, are in use in medical conditions that require treatment with steroid in one cell type, but where systemic effects of the particular steroid in the entire organism are only desirable within certain limits.
Types
In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogens, of which the most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiol, respectively. Other contexts will include progestagen as a third class of sex steroids, distinct from androgens and estrogens. Progesterone is the most important and only naturally-occurring human progestagen. In general, androgens are considered "male sex hormones", since they have masculinizing effects, while estrogens and progestagens are considered "female sex hormones" although all types are present in each gender, albeit at different levels.
Sex steroids include:
1. androgens:
• testosterone
• androstenedione
• dihydrotestosterone
• dehydroepiandrosterone
• anabolic steroids
2. estrogens:
• estradiol
• estrone
• estriol
3. progestagens:
• progesterone
• progestins

Sexual reproduction

The life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms cycles through haploid and diploid stages.
Sexual reproduction is a process where organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents. Chromosomes are passed on from one parent to another in this process. Each cell has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father. Genetic traits are contained within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of chromosomes — by combining one of each type of chromosomes from each parent, an organism is formed containing a doubled set of chromosomes. This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via a process called meiosis. Meiosis also involves a stage of chromosomal crossover, in which regions of DNA are exchanged between matched types of chromosomes, to form a new pair of mixed chromosomes. Crossing over and fertilization (the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid) result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.
In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism; in others, the gametes are capable of undergoing cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms. In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size (isogamy), or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects (anisogamy). By convention, the larger gamete (called an ovum, or egg cell) is considered female, while the smaller gamete (called a spermatozoon, or sperm cell) is considered male. An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male. An individual that produces both types of gametes is a hermaphrodite; in some cases hermaphrodites are able to self-fertilize and produce offspring on their own, without a second organism.

Animals

Hoverflies engaging in sexual intercourse
Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid organisms, with the haploid stage reduced to single cell gametes. The gametes of animals have male and female forms—spermatozoa and egg cells. These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism.
The male gamete, a spermatozoan (produced within a testicle), is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it. Spermatozoa are extremely reduced cells, lacking many cellular components that would be necessary for embryonic development. They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.
Female gametes are egg cells (produced within ovaries), large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo. Egg cells are often associated with other cells which support the development of the embryo, forming an egg. In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother.
Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating. Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization, where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water. Most animals that live outside of water, however, must transfer sperm from male to female to achieve internal fertilization.
In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca—male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing". In many other terrestrial animals, males use specialized sex organs to assist the transport of sperm—these male sex organs are called intromittent organs. In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis, which enters the female reproductive tract (called the vagina) to achieve insemination—a process called sexual intercourse. The penis contains a tube through which semen (a fluid containing sperm) travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus, an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within (a process called gestation).
Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination, for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity - a process detrimental to the female's health.
Plants
Flowers are the sexual organs of flowering plants, usually containing both male and female parts.
Main article: Plant reproduction
Like animals, plants have developed specialized male and female gametes. Within most familiar plants, male gametes are contained within hard coats, forming pollen. The female gametes of plants are contained within ovules; once fertilized by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.



Female (left) and male (right) cones are the sex organs of pines and other conifers.
Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes. The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the carpels—one or more of these may be merged to form a single pistil. Within carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization. The male parts of the flower are the stamens: these long filamentous organs are arranged between the pistil and the petals and produce pollen at their tips. When a pollen grain lands upon the top of a carpel, the tissues of the plant react to transport the grain down into the carpel to merge with an ovule, eventually forming seeds.
In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them. Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.
Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants. Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants. Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by insects. The plants attract these insects with nectar-containing flowers. Insects transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination.

Mushrooms are produced as part of fungal sexual reproduction.
Fungi
Main article: Mating in fungi
Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous, lacking male and female specialization: haploid fungi grow into contact with each other and then fuse their cells. In some of these cases the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus (and not accompanying cellular material) could arguably be considered "male".
Some fungi, including baker's yeast, have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.
Fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores—the height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring.

Sex helps the spread of advantageous traits through recombination. The diagrams compare evolution of allele frequency in a sexual population (a) and an asexual population (b). The vertical axis shows frequency and the horizontal axis shows time. The alleles a/A and b/B occur at random. The advantageous combination AB arises rapidly with recombination (a), but must arise independently in (b).
Evolution
Main article: Evolution of sex
Sexual reproduction first appeared about a billion years ago, evolved within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes. The reason for the initial evolution of sex, and the reason it has survived to the present, are still matters of debate. Some of the many plausible theories include: that sex creates variation among offspring, sex helps in the spread of advantageous traits, and that sex helps in the removal of disadvantageous traits.
Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes, organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes (eg. the malaria parasite) also engage in sexual reproduction. Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between bacteria; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.
What is considered defining of sexual reproduction is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization. Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals.
Human reproduction

This article is intended to focus on the biological aspects of sex. If you are interested in articles specifically related to humans and sexuality please see the above links.
Sex determination
The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites, producing both male and female gametes—this is true of some animals (eg. snails) and the majority of flowering plants. In many cases, however, specialization of sex has evolved such that some organisms produce only male or only female gametes. The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination.
In the majority of species with sex specialization organisms are either male (producing only male gametes) or female (producing only female gametes). A few exceptions exist—for example, in the roundworm C. elegans the two sexes are hermaphrodite and male (a system called androdioecy).
Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex. Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite" but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.
Genetic
Like humans and other mammals, the common fruit fly has an XY sex determination system.
In genetic sex determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has. Genetic sex determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1:1 ratio of male and female offspring.
Humans and other mammals have an XY sex determination system: the Y chromosome carries factors responsible for triggering male development. The default sex, in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female. Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male. XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants. In some cases, including in the fruit fly, it is the number of X chromosomes that determines sex rather than the presence of a Y chromosome.
In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system, the opposite is true: the W chromosome carries factors responsible for female development, and default development is male. In this case ZZ individuals are male and ZW are female. The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system. In both XY and ZW sex determination systems the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.
Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called XX/XO sex determination—the O indicates the absence of the sex chromosome. All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets, for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.[20] In the nematode C. elegans most worms are self-fertilizing XX hermaphrodites, but occasionally abnormalities in chromosome inheritance regularly give rise to individuals with only one X chromosome—these XO individuals are fertile males (and half their offspring are male).
Other insects, including honey bees and ants, use a haplodiploid sex-determination system. In this case diploid individuals are generally female, and haploid individuals (which develop from unfertilized eggs) are male. This sex-determination system results in highly biased sex ratios, as the sex of offspring is determined by fertilization rather than the assortment of chromosomes during meiosis.

Clownfish are initially male; the largest fish in a group becomes female.
Nongenetic
For many species sex is not determined by inherited traits, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life. Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination: the temperature embryos experience during their development determines the sex of the organism. In some turtles, for example, males are produced at lower incubation temperatures than females; this difference in critical temperatures can be as little as 1-2°C.
Many fish change sex over the course of their lifespan, a phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism. In clownfish, smaller fish are male, and the dominant and largest fish in a group becomes female. In many wrasses the opposite is true—most fish are initially female and become male when they reach a certain size. Sequential hermaphrodites may produce both types of gametes over the course of their lifetime, but at any given point they are either female or male.
In some ferns the default sex is hermaphrodite, but ferns which grow in soil that has previously supported hermaphrodites are influenced by residual hormones to instead develop as male.

Sexual dimorphism

Common pheasants are sexually dimorphic in both size and appearance.
Main article: sexual dimorphism
Many animals have differences between the male and female sexes in size and appearance, a phenomenon called sexual dimorphism. Sexual dimorphisms are often associated with sexual selection - the competition between individuals of one sex to mate with the opposite sex. Antlers in male deer, for example, are used in combat between males to win reproductive access to female deer. In many cases the male of a species is larger in size; in mammals species with high sexual size dimorphism tend to have highly polygynous mating systems—presumably due to selection for success in competition with other males.
Other animals, including most insects and many fish, have larger females. This may be associated with the cost of producing egg cells, which requires more nutrition than producing sperm—larger females are able to produce more eggs. Occasionally this dimorphism is extreme, with males reduced to living as parasites dependent on the female.
In birds, males often have a more colourful appearance and may have features (like the long tail of male peacocks) that would seem to put the organism at a disadvantage (e.g. bright colors would seem to make a bird more visible to predators). One proposed explanation for this is the handicap principle.This hypothesis says that, by demonstrating he can survive with such handicaps, the male is advertising his genetic fitness to females—traits that will benefit daughters as well, who will not be encumbered with such handicaps.
Sex differences in humans include, generally, a larger size and more body hair in men; women have breasts, wider hips, and a higher body fat percentage.
Sexology

Sexology is the scientific study of sexual interests, behavior, and function.[1][2] In modern sexology, researchers apply tools from several academic fields, including biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, epidemiology, sociology, anthropology, and criminology. It studies sexual development and the development of sexual relationships as well as the mechanics of sexual intercourse. It also documents the sexualities of special groups, such as the disabled handicapped, children, and the elderly. Sexologists study sexual dysfunctions, disorders, and variations, such as erectile dysfunction, pedophilia, and sexual orientation. Sexological findings can become controversial when they contradict mainstream, religious, or political beliefs.
Sex Hormones :
Viewing life with this eternal perspective have consequences .To study every aspect of question ,we should recognise every people need have sex because man and woman has the sex hormone in our body whereas we're small or older,of which estrogen is the pricipal female sex hormone produced by the ovatries affecting the growth or function pf the reproductive organs and the development of secondary sex characteristics.At the meanwhile one act,one behaviour can make other people misundertoood that depend on our personnel 's Hormone .Somehow that man /woman are in the type of "Taciturnity "or "Mental illness"who need or don't need to have the "Medical Permanation" for their unsex interruptedness dismay today.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin.
Transport of sex hormones
Testosterone and estradiol circulate in the bloodstream, bound mostly to SHBG and to some degree bound to serum albumin. Only a small fraction is unbound, or "free," and thus biologically active and able to enter a cell and activate its receptor. The SHBG inhibits the function of these hormones. Thus bioavailability of sex hormones is influenced by the level of SHBG.
SHBG production
SHBG is produced by the liver cells and is released into the bloodstream. Other sites that produce SHBG are the brain, uterus, and placenta. In addition SHBG is produced by the testes; testes-produced SHBG is also called androgen-binding protein. The gene for SHBG is located on chromosome 17.
Control
SHBG levels appear to be controlled by a delicate balance of enhancing and inhibiting factors. Its level is decreased by high levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (see:milk). Also, high androgen levels decrease SHBG, while high estrogen and thyroxine levels increase it.
However, recent evidence suggests that it is the liver's production of fats that reduces SHBG levels, not any direct effect of insulin and specific genetic mechanisms have been found that do this.
Conditions with high or low levels
Conditions with low SHBG include polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, and hypothyroidism. Conditions with high SHBG include pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, and anorexia nervosa. There has recently been research to link high SHBG levels with breast and testicular cancer as well.
Measurement of sex hormones
When determining levels of circulating estradiol or testosterone, either a total measurement could be done that includes the "free" and the bound fractions, or only the "free" hormone could be measured. A free androgen index expresses the ratio of testosterone to the sex hormone binding globulin and can be used to summarize the activity of free testosterone.
The total testosterone is likely the most accurate measurement of testosterone levels and should always be measured at 8 o'clock in the morning. Sex hormone binding globulin can be measured separate from the total fraction of testosterone.
Human sexuality

Human sexuality is how people experience the erotic and express themselves as sexual beings.[1] Frequently driven by the desire for sexual pleasure, human sexuality has biological, physical and emotional aspects. Biologically, it refers to the reproductive mechanism as well as the basic biological drive that exists in all species and can encompass sexual intercourse and sexual contact in all its forms. Emotional aspects deal with the intense emotions relating to sexual acts and associated social bonds. Physical issues around sexuality range from purely medical considerations to concerns about the physiological or even psychological and sociological aspects of sexual behaviour.
The term can also cover cultural, political, legal and philosophical aspects. It may also refer to issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality or religion and how they relate to all things sexual. Recent studies on human sexuality have highlighted that sexual aspects are of major importance in building up personal identity and in the social evolution of individuals:[2]
“ Human sexuality is not simply imposed by instinct or stereotypical conducts, as it happens in animals, but it is influenced both by superior mental activity and by social, cultural, educational and normative characteristics of those places where the subjects grow up and their personality develops. Consequently, the analysis of sexual sphere must be based on the convergence of several lines of development such as affectivity, emotions and relations. ”
Deleuze and Guattari, in their 1972 classic Anti-Oedipus, discussed how sexuality is a powerful force that invests all the social activities:[3]
“ Familialism maintains that sexuality operates only in the family [...] the truth is that sexuality is everywhere: the way a bureaucrat fondles his records, a judge administers justice, a business causes money to circulate; the way the burgeoise fucks the proletariat; and so on. And there is no need to resort to metaphors, any more than for the libido to go by way of metemorphoses. Hitler gave the fascists a hard-on. Flags, nations, armies, banks give a lot of people hard-ons. ”

Art and artifacts from past eras help to portray human sexuality of the time.



Sociocultural aspects

Human sexuality can also be understood as part of the social life of humans, governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo. This focus narrows the view to groups within a society.[1] The sociocultural aspect examines influences on and from social norms, including the effects of politics and the mass media. Such movements can help to bring about massive changes in the social norm — examples include the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism.[8][9]
The link between constructed sex meanings and racial ideologies has been studied. Sexual meanings are constructed to maintain racial-ethnic-national boundaries, by denigration of "others" and regulation of sexual behavior within the group. "Both adherence to and deviation from such approved behaviors, define and reinforce racial, ethnic, and nationalist regimes."[10][11]
The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries (such as Australia and much of Europe) "age-appropriate" sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.[12] Sex education covers a range of topics, including the physical, mental, and social aspects of sexual behavior. In Europe, schools also address children's safe use of the internet.
Psychological aspects

Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses. Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality.[13]
Psychological studies of sexuality focus on psychological influences that affect sexual behavior and experiences.[1] Early psychological analyses were carried out by Sigmund Freud, who believed in a psychoanalytic approach. He also conjectured the concepts of erogenous zones, psychosexual development, and the Oedipus complex, among others.[14]
Behavior theorists such as John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner examine the actions and consequences and their ramifications. These theorists would, for example, study a child who is punished for sexual exploration and see if they grow up to associate negative feelings with sex in general.[15] Social-learning theorists use similar concepts, but focus on cognitive activity and modeling.
Gender identity is a person's own sense of identification as female, male, both, neither, or somewhere in between. The social construction of gender has been discussed by a wide variety of scholars, Judith Butler notable among them. Recent contributions consider the influence of feminist theory and courtship research.[16][17]
Fertility
Both women and men have hormonal cycles determining when a woman can achieve pregnancy and when a man is most virile. The female cycle is approximately 28 days long, but the male cycle is variable.[18][19]
Menstrual cycle
Main article: Menstrual cycle
Although women can become pregnant at any time during their menstrual cycle, peak fertility usually occurs two days before and two days after the ovulation date
Female fertility
The average age of the first menstruation or menarche in the United States is about 12.5 years.
Women's fertility peaks around the age of 19-24, and can start to decline after 30. With a rise in women postponing pregnancy,this can create an infertility problem. Of women trying to get pregnant, without using fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization:
• At age 30, 75% will get pregnant within one year, and 91% within four years.
• At age 35, 66% will get pregnant within one year, and 84% within four years.
• At age 40, 44% will get pregnant within one year, and 64% within four years.
• Male fertility and age
Erectile dysfunction increases with age,but fertility does not decline in men as sharply as it does in women. There have been examples of males being fertile at 94 years old.[24] However, evidence suggests that increased male age is associated with a decline in semen volume, sperm motility, and sperm morphology.Sperm count declines with age, with men aged 50–80 years producing sperm at an average rate of 75% compared with men aged 20–50 years.
Sex and religion
Most religions address the question of a "proper" role for sexuality in human interactions. Different religions have different codes of sexual morality, which regulate sexual activity or assign normative values to certain sexually charged actions or thoughts.
Some cultures discriminate against sexual contact outside of marriage although it is widely practiced. Extramarital sexual activity is strictly forbidden by Islamic and Jewish law.

GOD
Who created God? Where did God come from?
A common argument from atheists and skeptics is that if all things need a cause, then God must also need a cause. The conclusion is that if God needed a cause, then God is not God (and if God is not God, then of course there is no God). This is a slightly more sophisticated form of the basic question “Who made God?” Everyone knows that something does not come from nothing. So, if God is a “something,” then He must have a cause, right?

The question is tricky because it sneaks in the false assumption that God came from somewhere and then asks where that might be. The answer is that the question does not even make sense. It is like asking, “What does blue smell like?” Blue is not in the category of things that have a smell, so the question itself is flawed. In the same way, God is not in the category of things that are created or caused. God is uncaused and uncreated—He simply exists.

How do we know this? We know that from nothing, nothing comes. So, if there were ever a time when there was absolutely nothing in existence, then nothing would have ever come into existence. But things do exist. Therefore, since there could never have been absolutely nothing, something had to have always been in existence. That ever-existing thing is what we call God. God is the uncaused Being that caused everything else to come into existence. God is the uncreated Creator who created the universe and everything in it.
God

God is a deity in theistic and deistic religions and other belief systems, representing either the sole deity in monotheism, or a principal deity in polytheism.
God is most often conceived of as the supernatural creator and overseer of the universe. Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most common among these include omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. God has also been conceived as being incorporeal, a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Muslim theologian philosophers, including Maimonides, Augustine of Hippo, and Al-Ghazali, respectively. Many notable medieval philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God. Many notable philosophers and intellectuals have, by contrast, developed arguments against the existence of God.
Etymology and usage
The earliest written form of the Germanic word god comes from the 6th century Christian Codex Argenteus. The English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. Most linguists agree that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau(ə)-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".The Germanic words for god were originally neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the word became a masculine syntactic form.
The capitalized form God was first used in Ulfilas's Gothic translation of the New Testament, to represent the Greek Theos. In the English language, the capitalization continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic "God" and "gods" in polytheism. In spite of significant differences between religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, the Bahá'í Faith, and Judaism, the term "God" remains an English translation common to all. The name may signify any related or similar monotheistic deities, such as the early monotheism of Akhenaten and Zoroastrianism.
Names of God
Conceptions of God can vary widely, but the word God in English—and its counterparts in other languages, such as Latinate Deus, Greek Θεός, Slavic Bog, Sanskrit Ishvara, or Arabic Allah—are normally used for any and all conceptions. The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is also given a proper name, the tetragrammaton (usually reconstructed as Yahweh or YHWH), believed to be a mark of the religion's henotheistic origins. In many translations of the Bible, when the word "LORD" is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. God may also be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or later Vishnu and Hari. For aboriginal Guanches (Tenerife, Spain) God is called Achamán.
It is difficult to draw a line between proper names and epitheta of God, such as the names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, the names of God in the Qur'an, and the various lists of the thousand names of Hindu gods and List of titles and names of Krishna in Vaishnavism.
Throughout the Bible there are many names for God that portray his nature and character. One of them is elohim[] which has been argued to mean “strong one”[citation needed], among other things, although the etymology is debated and obscure. Another one is El Shaddai, meaning “God Almighty”. A third notable name is El Elyon, which means “The Most High God”.
Conceptions of God
Conceptions of God vary widely. Theologians and philosophers have studied countless conceptions of God since the dawn of civilization. The Abrahamic conceptions of God include the trinitarian view of Christians, the Kabbalistic definition of Jewish mysticism, and the Islamic concept of God. The dharmic religions differ in their view of the divine: views of God in Hinduism vary by region, sect, and caste, ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic to atheistic; the view of God in Buddhism is almost non-theist. In modern times, some more abstract concepts have been developed, such as process theology and open theism. Conceptions of God held by individual believers vary so widely that there is no clear consensus on the nature of God. The contemporaneous French philosopher Michel Henry has however proposed a phenomenological approach and definition of God as phenomenological essence of Life.
Existence of God
Many arguments which attempt to prove or disprove the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers for many centuries. In philosophical terminology, such arguments concern schools of thought on the epistemology of the ontology of God.
There are many philosophical issues concerning the existence of God. Some definitions of God are sometimes nonspecific, while other definitions can be self-contradictory. Arguments for the existence of God typically include metaphysical, empirical, inductive, and subjective types, while others revolve around holes in evolutionary theory and order and complexity in the world. Arguments against the existence of God typically include empirical, deductive, and inductive types. Conclusions reached include: "God does not exist" (strong atheism); "God almost certainly does not exist" (de facto atheism); "no one knows whether God exists" (agnosticism); "God exists, but this cannot be proven or disproven" (theism); and "God exists and this can be proven" (theism). There are numerous variations on these positions.
Theological approaches
Theologians and philosophers have ascribed a number of attributes to God, including omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, perfect goodness, divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. God has been described as incorporeal, a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the greatest conceivable being existent. These attributes were all claimed to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars, including St Augustine, Al-Ghazali,and Maimonides.
Many medieval philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God, while attempting to comprehend the precise implications of God's attributes. Reconciling some of those attributes generated important philosophical problems and debates. For example, God's omniscience implies that God knows how free agents will choose to act. If God does know this, their apparent free will might be illusory, or foreknowledge does not imply predestination; and if God does not know it, God is not omniscient.
The last centuries of philosophy have seen vigorous questions regarding the arguments for God's existence raised by such philosophers as Immanuel Kant, David Hume and Antony Flew, although Kant held that the argument from morality was valid. The theist response has been either to contend, like Alvin Plantinga, that faith is "properly basic"; or to take, like Richard Swinburne, the evidentialist position. Some theists agree that none of the arguments for God's existence are compelling, but argue that faith is not a product of reason, but requires risk. There would be no risk, they say, if the arguments for God's existence were as solid as the laws of logic, a position summed up by Pascal as: "The heart has reasons which reason knows not of."
Most major religions hold God not as a metaphor, but a being that influences our day-to-day existences. Many believers allow for the existence of other, less powerful spiritual beings, and give them names such as angels, saints, djinni, demons, and devas.
Theism and Deism
Theism generally holds that God exists realistically, objectively, and independently of human thought; that God created and sustains everything; that God is omnipotent and eternal; personal and interacting with the universe through for example religious experience and the prayers of humans. It holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, God is simultaneously infinite and in some way present in the affairs of the world. Not all theists subscribe to all the above propositions, but usually a fair number of them, c.f., family resemblance. Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is not involuntarily subject to time. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open Theism, by contrast, asserts that, due to the nature of time, God's omniscience does not mean the deity can predict the future. "Theism" is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e., monotheism or polytheism.
Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create it. In this view, God is not anthropomorphic, and does not literally answer prayers or cause miracles to occur. Common in Deism is a belief that God has no interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity. Pandeism and Panendeism, respectively, combine Deism with the Pantheistic or Panentheistic beliefs discussed below.
History of monotheism
Some writers such as Karen Armstrong believe that the concept of monotheism sees a gradual development out of notions of henotheism and monolatrism. In the Ancient Near East, each city had a local patron deity, such as Shamash at Larsa or Sin at Ur. The first claims of global supremacy of a specific god date to the Late Bronze Age, with Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten, and, depending on dating issues, Zoroaster's Gathas to Ahura Mazda. Currents of monism or monotheism emerge in Vedic India in the same period, with e.g. the Nasadiya Sukta. Philosophical monotheism and the associated concept of absolute good and evil emerges in Classical Antiquity, notably with Plato (c.f. Euthyphro dilemma), elaborated into the idea of The One in Neoplatonism.
According to The Oxford Companion To World Mythology, "The lack of cohesion among early Hebrews made monotheism – even monolatry, the exclusive worship of one god among many – an impossibility...And even then it can be argued that the firm establishment of monotheism in Judaism required the rabbinical or Talmudic process of the first century B.C.E. to the sixth century C.E.". In Islamic theology, a person who spontaneously "discovers" monotheism is called a ḥanīf, the original ḥanīf being Abraham.
Austrian anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt in the 1910s postulated an Urmonotheismus, "original" or "primitive monotheism", a thesis now widely rejected in comparative religion but still occasionally defended in creationist circles.
Monotheism and pantheism
Monotheists hold that there is only one god, and may claim that the one true god is worshiped in different religions under different names. The view that all theists actually worship the same god, whether they know it or not, is especially emphasized in Hinduism[]and Sikhism. Adherents of different religions, however, generally disagree as to how to best worship God and what is God's plan for mankind, if there is one. There are different approaches to reconciling the contradictory claims of monotheistic religions. One view is taken by exclusivists, who believe they are the chosen people or have exclusive access to absolute truth, generally through revelation or encounter with the Divine, which adherents of other religions do not. Another view is religious pluralism. A pluralist typically believes that his religion is the right one, but does not deny the partial truth of other religions. An example of a pluralist view in Christianity is supersessionism, i.e., the belief that one's religion is the fulfillment of previous religions. A third approach is relativistic inclusivism, where everybody is seen as equally right; an example in Christianity is universalism: the doctrine that salvation is eventually available for everyone. A fourth approach is syncretism, mixing different elements from different religions. An example of syncretism is the New Age movement.
Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God, whereas Panentheism holds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe; the distinctions between the two are subtle. It is also the view of the Liberal Catholic Church, Theosophy, some views of Hinduism except Vaishnavism which believes in panentheism, Sikhism, some divisions of Buddhism, some divisions of Neopaganism and Taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations. Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God — which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism, particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov — but only as an addition to the Jewish view of a personal god, not in the original pantheistic sense that denies or limits persona to God.
Dystheism and nontheism
Dystheism, related to theodicy is a form of theism which holds that God is either not wholly good or is fully malevolent as a consequence of the problem of evil. One such example would be Satanism or the Devil.
Nontheism holds that the universe can be explained without any reference to the supernatural, or to a supernatural being. Some non-theists avoid the concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations. Many schools of Buddhism may be considered non-theistic.
Scientific positions regarding God
Stephen Jay Gould proposed an approach dividing the world of philosophy into what he called "non-overlapping magisteria" (NOMA). In this view, questions of the supernatural, such as those relating to the existence and nature of God, are non-empirical and are the proper domain of theology. The methods of science should then be used to answer any empirical question about the natural world, and theology should be used to answer questions about ultimate meaning and moral value. In this view, the perceived lack of any empirical footprint from the magisterium of the supernatural onto natural events makes science the sole player in the natural world.
Another view, advanced by Richard Dawkins, is that the existence of God is an empirical question, on the grounds that "a universe with a god would be a completely different kind of universe from one without, and it would be a scientific difference."
Carl Sagan argued that the doctrine of a Creator of the Universe was difficult to prove or disprove and that the only conceivable scientific discovery that could challenge it would be an infinitely old universe.
Anthropomorphism
See also: Anthropomorphism
Pascal Boyer argues that while there is a wide array of supernatural concepts found around the world, in general, supernatural beings tend to behave much like people. The construction of gods and spirits like persons is one of the best known traits of religion. He cites examples from Greek Mythology, which is, in his opinion, more like a modern soap opera than other religious systems. Bertrand du Castel and Timothy Jurgensen demonstrate through formalization that Boyer's explanatory model matches physics' epistemology in positing not directly observable entities as intermediaries. Anthropologist Stewart Guthrie contends that people project human features onto non-human aspects of the world because it makes those aspects more familiar. Sigmund Freud also suggested that god concepts are projections of one's father.
Likewise, Émile Durkheim was one of the earliest to suggest that gods represent an extension of human social life to include supernatural beings. In line with this reasoning, psychologist Matt Rossano contends that when humans began living in larger groups, they may have created gods as a means of enforcing morality. In small groups, morality can be enforced by social forces such as gossip or reputation. However it is much harder to enforce morality using social forces in much larger groups. He indicates that by including ever watchful gods and spirits, humans discovered an effective strategy for restraining selfishness and building more cooperative groups.
Distribution of belief in God
As of 2000, approximately 53% of the world's population identifies with one of the three Abrahamic religions (33% Christian, 20% Islam, <1% Judaism), 6% with Buddhism, 13% with Hinduism, 6% with traditional Chinese religion, 7% with various other religions, and less than 15% as non-religious. Most of these religious beliefs involve a god or gods.[34

The GOD And Sex


The Bible isn't shy at all about speaking to this crucial issue of sex. It is my prayer that God might use this study guide to enlighten, heal, and liberate you. Because if your sex life is going to be all that it should be, then you must seek to understand God's mind on the subject. God's will is always good, acceptable, and perfect. Let's trust God to show us the best and most bountiful way to experience His blessed gift of sex."-Kay Arthur
In this companion study guide to her groundbreaking book and video, Sex… According to God, Kay Arthur approaches this vital topic not to shock or offend, but to boldly equip you to experience God's absolute best for your life-whether you're married or single-by understanding and obeying His will regarding sex.
This practical, powerful guide will take you through the Scriptures to answer the questions you're most likely struggling with:
• Why do we have sex anyway?
• What does God allow when it comes to sex-when, where, and with whom?
• If we both want it, who are we hurting?
• Are homosexuals born that way, or can they change?
• Why does God restrict my freedom-doesn't He want me to be happy?
• Are these feelings that seem so uncontrollable normal?
• What do I do if I've messed up?
• And much more
Experience the ultimate liberation by understanding and living according to God's will for sex. As Kay explains, "Sex really is beautiful. Yet the beauty of sex shines all the more brilliantly when seen in the pure light of God's Word."

Why Did God Create Sex?
There's great confusion in our society today about sex. We live in a culture where we almost breathe sex! Grab the television remote for a few minutes of channel surfing, and it's there, discussed, debated, demonstrated, and used to sell anything and everything from cars to shampoo, from coffee to toothpaste. The message is loud and clear: We have to be desirable. One way or another we have to attract the opposite sex if we ever want love. It's no longer love that makes the world go round; it's sex!
Go on the Internet, type in an innocuous word, and without warning you're offered titillating sights and experiences you never knew existed-or you wish you never knew. Your curiosity tempts you to investigate further. Your mind tries to rationalize how you can go where you know you shouldn't. You find yourself battling a desire-a longing so unexpectedly awakened.
You get out of the house, walk down the street, and it steps right in front of you-parading long, luscious legs and a short, tight skirt that rides every movement of her hips. You look up to distract yourself from the thoughts invading your mind, and you see a billboard that only entices you to carry the thoughts further.
You walk into a corner store to grab something to eat or drink, and the magazines catch your eye. The pictures and headlines promise answers to your questions, ways to get or keep a lover excited and interested, and ways you can test your sexual IQ.
You get together with your friends, and eventually the subject turns to the opposite sex-conquests are shared, frustrations are expressed, advice is given, or you're laughed at because you haven't had it! You're told you just don't know what true excitement is.
That night you go to a movie; it's rated PG, but the upcoming attractions are not. Most of them sell sex, and you're sitting with your arm around someone whose skin is warm and soft, her perfume sweetening the aura of her femininity-or you're snuggling closer to a guy who exudes strength and tenderness. Your mind is going where it shouldn't go, your flesh is longing for what it shouldn't have; she's not your wife … he's not your husband. You go home with your date and what do you do? Should you really go in, even for just a few minutes? If you do, will you engage in intercourse- or everything short of it? And whether or not you "go all the way," will you experience sex the way God intended it to be when He created sex?
Is it possible for the god to have sex with humans?
In Genesis 6:1-4 the "sons of God" are captivated by the beauty of the "daughters of men." They subsequently marry them and produce an offspring of giants known as the Nephilim. Genesis goes on to say that these Nephilim were "mighty men" and "men of renown."

In the Old Testament, the designation "sons of God" (bene Elohim) is never used of humans, but always of supernatural beings that are higher than man but lower than God. To fit such a category only one species is known--angels. And the term "sons of God" applies to both good and bad angels.

The Original Design
Let's go back to the very beginning, to Genesis, the first book in the Bible. I want you to see for yourself what God says about sex, about our gender differences, and why He made us this way. As you read Genesis 1, a portion of which is printed out for you below, I suggest that you mark the text as you read it. When you do this and then write out your observations, it helps you not only grasp for yourself exactly what God says and means, it also helps you remember what you discovered. Now then, color or underline every reference to man, including every pronoun (every him, every them).
GENESIS 1:25-28
25 God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
26 Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth."
27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.
28 God blessed them; and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth."
What did you learn from marking the references to man? Did you notice the word you in that question is italicized? That's because this book is about you. Our study together is not an issue of your agreeing or disagreeing with what I write; rather it's about seeing with your own eyes exactly what God has to say about sex. Then you can make an informed, intelligent, rational decision about what you're going to do with what you've learned. And when you come to the final page of this book, you'll never have occasion to say with regret, "Well, if only I had known!" You will know. You'll know it all, because we'll cover it all.
Now let's get back into our study, starting with listing your insights. Observing the text in this careful way helps you see exactly what God is saying, and it keeps you from straying into "I think," "I heard," or "I just feel" as you strive to grasp God's truth. These comments are not bad; you just need to get the facts first and go from there. So in the space provided, record the facts you learned about man from reading Genesis 1.
Before we discuss what we observed in Genesis 1, let's look at Genesis 2. What God does in this next passage is tighten the focus on the telescope and take you in for a closer look, enabling you to see the details of the creation of man and woman.
As you read the text, mark every reference to the man like this and every reference to the woman like this: ♂ and every reference to the woman like this: ♀. Also mark pronouns the same way.
GENESIS 2:7-8, 15-25
7 Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.
8 The LORD God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man whom He had formed.…
15 Then the LORD God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it.
16 The LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely;
17 but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die."
18 Then the LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him."
19 Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name.
20 The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him.
21 So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place.
22 The LORD God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man.
23 The man said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man."
24 For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh.
25 And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.
Now list below what you learned in this passage from marking man and woman.
MAN






WOMAN







Genesis 1 tells us that both man and woman were created on the sixth day, yet Genesis 2 shows us there was an order to their creation. Adam was created first from the dust of the earth, while the woman was created from a rib taken from the side of the man. God makes sure we know His purpose in creating the woman: She is to be a helper to the man, because among the beasts of the field no suitable companion for him was found. The Hebrew words in this passage translated as helper suitable (help meet in the King James Version) are ezer neged. Ezer means "an aide," while neged means "a counterpart, a mate."
If it wasn't good for Adam to be alone, why didn't God just create another man to be Adam's companion? Is there a difference between the sexes? You need to know what the Bible teaches, because an opposing view has long been promoted-and many have bought into its lie.
I've saved a page of notes given to me by a college student who wrote them down while sitting in a class on child development in 1979. As you read verbatim what my friend wrote, please know these are not the ravings of a lone liberal. I wish they were. Rather these notes reflect the cleverly wrought lies that had to be presented-and believed-to make way for the perversions that would follow in the name of "scientific" research. I will share only the first three; they're enough.
1. We are born asexual, neither homosexual nor heterosexual.
2. Children's sex is determined by labels parents place before two years of age.
3. All our sexual behavior is learned. Sex drive is learned, influenced by our environment.
Although these statements were supposedly based on the latest scientific research in the study of human sexuality, are they true? Do they concur with the Word of God?
What did you see in Genesis 1 and 2? Were we created asexual?


And were we designed to reproduce asexual offspring? Genesis 4 answers that quickly: When Eve gave birth to their first child, she said, "I have gotten a manchild with the help of the LORD" (verse 1). Eve could tell the baby was not female like she was. A human, yes; a woman, no. His anatomy was different and the difference was evident from birth. So it was then, and so it has always been.
God determines the sex of the child, and the sex, except in very rare situations, is evident from birth. But the difference is not one of mere anatomy. You can put a little boy in a feminine environment, but it won't remove the Y chromosome that makes him male. It won't diminish his levels of testosterone, a hormone that shoots up six to seven weeks after the sperm meets the egg and far exceeds the testosterone levels in females.
When children reach the age of puberty, it won't matter what environment they've been raised in, what clothes they were dressed in, what gender they were labeled with. A girl's estrogen level will be eight to ten times higher than a boy's, and his testosterone level will exceed hers by a factor of fifteen. Our environment can greatly impact how we view ourselves, what we think of as normal, and some of our preferences-but it cannot change our gender. If it could, people wouldn't be seeking sex-change operations.
If you want truth without distortion, you'll find it in the Bible. God's Book tells us we were created distinctively male and female. Eve was designed to be a suitable helper, a companion for Adam. Both were also designed for the purpose of procreation. Two men, no matter how they were raised, cannot have sex and produce a child. Neither can two women. It takes a sperm and an egg to make a child-and for those elements you need a man and a woman.As I said, God didn't create another man to be Adam's companion; He created Eve, a woman. It was Adam and Eve who were to be fruitful and multiply by producing male and female babies, who in turn would grow up and produce more male and female babies.
And how would this happen? Did you notice that Genesis 2:24 says, "and they shall become one flesh"? What does that mean?
God explains it very clearly in 1 Corinthians 6:15-18. As you read this passage printed out for you, remember that the apostle Paul is writing these words to Christians. A genuine Christian has the Holy Spirit dwelling inside him or her. Christianity is Christ in us; therefore, our bodies become His temple. Also as you read, mark the following three things each in a distinctive way: every reference to you and your, every occurrence of prostitute, and every mention of immorality. In marking words, I find it most helpful to use different colors, so they're easily recognized. (As you continue in this book, you may want to keep on hand a half-dozen colored pencils-or at least a threecolored ballpoint pen.) If marking these words in different colors isn't practical, you can underline you and put a downward arrow over prostitute like this ↓ and a big I over immorality.
1 CORINTHIANS 6:15-18
15 Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be!
16 Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, "THE TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH."
17 But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him.
18 Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body.


What did you learn from marking you and your?

According to what you read in this passage and in Genesis 2, how would you explain the phrase, "the two shall become one flesh"?

What is the "immorality" to which Paul refers in these verses?




It's so incredible, so awesome: Sex, by God's design, is becoming one flesh. When God made Adam and Eve distinctively male and female, He designed them anatomically so they could physically become one flesh in the act of sexual intercourse.
God formed us to know no greater ecstasy than when a man and a woman literally merge into one flesh. Hormones, nerves, sensory receptors, and other specific physical characteristics are all part of His divine design for our pleasure in the physical oneness of marriage.
An ecstasy beyond exquisite.
A oneness washing over you, a wave of passion carrying youweightless to a sea of delight.
Passion that loses consciousness of anything else. Exhaustion that leaves you spent, drained of tension, and filled with satisfaction, total satisfaction.
Sex has a beauty all its own and-wonder of wonders!-God invented it.
You do realize, don't you, that God didn't have to make sex so pleasurable! He could have designed it to be very mechanical, much like the instructions on the Drano can: To make a baby, first do this, then that, and follow with this. Be careful of such and such. Nine months later you should produce a child; if not, repeat entire process again until successful.
No feelings, no passion, no exhilaration-just mechanics.
Never! That's so far from what God intended in creating sex. Sex is not meant to be mechanical; it's meant to be passionate. Sex, in its perfect form, brings the intimacy of not only truly belonging to another but longing for the presence of our beloved. In its hallowed purity, the union of a husband and wife becomes a holy metaphor of the wife God seeks for His Son, of the oneness He longs to have with His chosen people Israel.
The Ultimate Love Story
From beginning to end, the Bible is about a divine romance. It opens with the account of a man and woman becoming one flesh. It ends with the Spirit and the Bride inviting others to join God's forever family. The Old Testament shows us the joy of fidelity and the heart-wrenching pain of adultery. We watch as God takes the canvas of the Old Testament and paints the picture of His love affair with Israel.
In Ezekiel 16, He sketches the picture of Israel's birth, her abandonment, and His compassion when He found her in the field, her cord uncut, her body bloody and unwashed. Our hearts are touched as we observe His care in raising her until the time of love had come. In Jeremiah 2 we watch as He pauses for a moment, a smile crossing His face as He remembers the devotion of her youth, the love of their betrothal, the way she followed Him through the wilderness. Then the day came when Israel became His wife: "'I passed by you and saw you, and behold, you were at the time for love; so I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. I also swore to you and entered into a covenant with you so that you became Mine,' declares the Lord GOD" (Ezekiel 16:8).
A covenant is a solemn, binding agreement between two parties-one lesser and one greater, or both of equal status-who commit themselves to each other under certain conditions. A covenant once made is never to be broken. In a covenant relationship, two become one; they no longer live independently. They are now bound to protect and defend one another, share everything in common, be there for the other until death. So solemn is this arrangement that God becomes the sovereign administrator of every covenant, watching to make certain its conditions are fulfilled and, if they are not, to come to the defense of the violated one and to deal out retribution against the violator of the covenant. In the book of Malachi, God calls marriage a covenant and expresses how He hates divorce, a man putting away the wife of his youth.2
God's love for His covenant nation is so evident in the Bible, in the telling of their love story. Nothing is too good for her. He adorned her with ornaments, putting bracelets on her hand, a necklace around her neck, a beautiful crown upon her head. Her dresses were of fine linen, silk, and embroidered cloth. She ate the choicest of food. Exceedingly beautiful, she advanced to royalty. He bestowed His splendor on her, and her fame spread.
Then it happened.
She trusted in her beauty and began to play the harlot, pouring out her favors on every passerby. She sacrificed their children on the altars of fame and fortune.3 What once was beauty became lewdness. Her nakedness was experienced by many… and His heart broke.
Eventually, to get her attention, He wrote her a bill of divorcement and sent her away-but she was never far from His heart.
She descended down and down into greater degradation until she ended up for sale in a slave market-and God went to redeem her, Israel, His beloved. (We're given the picture in the book of Hosea, in the story the prophet tells of himself and Gomer.)
Israel's redemption would come through their own son, Jesus, whose very name means "God is our salvation," for it was He who would save their people from their sins. When Jesus came of age, God sought a bride for their son. This half-breed-Jew and Gentile in one body-was offered for redemption in a slave market at a terrible price, but the Father and Son did not hesitate to pay. They counseled together to redeem her with the blood of her betrothed, God's only begotten Son.
The covenant of marriage has been cut at Calvary, but it has not yet been consummated. Jesus is at home preparing a place for His bride, the church, in His father's house. The Father's servants are watching over her, urging her to stay pure so that she might be presented as a chaste virgin when the trumpet sounds and He at last comes, with shouts of joy, to take her home. Longing and looking for that day, she is preparing her bridal gown, white and clean, and sending out the invitation to come to the marriage supper of the Lamb.
The Book of books, the Bible, opens with a wedding and a home in a garden, then it closes with a wedding and the new Jerusalem coming down out of heaven, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband.
And what do we find in the middle of this Book of books? We find the greatest of all the love songs ever written: the Song of Solomon. A song that from beginning to end extols the beauty of sex according to God. A story of unquenchable, priceless love, a love that so satisfies our deepest longings that we turn to no other, for we know, "I am my beloved's and my beloved is mine, … and his desire is for me" (6:3; 7:10). A book that does not mention God-and doesn't need to, for it is the very expression of all God intended when He made us male and female and brought woman to man. A book that cautions us not to arouse or awaken love until it pleases, lest we mar its intended beauty and unique intimacy.


What Is Buddhism?




Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who lived about 26 centuries ago in what is now Nepal and northeastern India. He came to be called "the Buddha," which means "awakened one," after he experienced a profound realization of the nature of life, death and existence. In English, the Buddha was said to be enlightened, although in Sanskrit it is bodhi, "awakened
In the remaining years of his life, the Buddha traveled and taught. However, he didn't teach people what he had realized when he became enlightened. Instead, he taught people how to realize enlightenment for themselves. He taught that awakening comes through one's own direct experience, not through beliefs and dogmas.
In the centuries following the Buddha's life, Buddhism spread throughout Asia to become one of the dominant religions of the continent. Estimates of the number of Buddhists in the world today vary widely, in part because many Asians observe more than one religion, and in part because it is hard to know how many people are practicing Buddhism in Communist nations like China. The most common estimate is 350 million, which makes Buddhism the fourth largest of the world's religions.
Life of the Buddha


Conventional narratives on the Buddha's life such as the following, draw heavily on Theravada Tipitaka scriptures. Later texts, such as the Mahayana Lalitavistara Sutra, give different accounts.
According to the conventional narrative, the Buddha was born in Ancient India, in the city of Lumbini, around the year 563 BCE, and raised in Kapilavastu; both in modern-day Nepal.
Shortly after Siddhartha's birth, an astrologer visited the young prince's father, King Śuddhodana, and prophesied that Siddhartha would either become a great king or renounce the material world to become a holy man, depending on whether he saw what life was like outside the palace walls.
Śuddhodana was determined to see his son become a king so he prevented him from leaving the palace grounds. But at age 29, despite his father's efforts, Siddhartha ventured beyond the palace several times. In a series of encounters - known in Buddhist literature as the Four sights[]- he learned of the suffering of ordinary people, encountering an old man, a sick man, a corpse and, finally, an ascetic holy man, apparently content and at peace with the world. These experiences prompted Gautama eventually to abandon royal life and take up a spiritual quest.
Gautama first attempted an extreme ascetic life and almost starved himself to death in the process. But, after accepting milk and rice from a village girl in a pivotal moment, he changed his approach. He concluded that extreme ascetic practices, such as prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain, brought little spiritual benefit. He saw them as forms of self-hatred that were therefore counterproductive. He abandoned asceticism, concentrating instead on anapanasati meditation, through which he discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way: a path of moderation between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
Gautama was now determined to complete his spiritual quest. So, at the age of 35, he famously sat in meditation under a sacred fig tree, also known as the Bodhi tree, in the town of Bodh Gaya, India, and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment. After many days, he finally awakened to the ultimate nature of reality, thereby liberating himself from the cycle of suffering and rebirth, and arose as a fully enlightened being. Soon thereafter he attracted a band of followers and instituted a monastic order.
Now as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the path of awakening he discovered, travelling throughout the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, and died at the age of 80 (483 BCE) in Kushinagar, India. Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a monastic order but do not consistently accept the details in his biographies. According to author Michael Carrithers, a widely published expert on Buddhism, while there are good reasons to doubt the traditional account, "the outline of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, awakening and liberation, teaching, death."
Buddhist concepts
Life and the world

The Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to China, Mongolia, and Tibet. In Tibet, Vajrayana has always been a main component of Tibetan Buddhism, while in China it formed a separate sect. However, Vajrayana Buddhism became extinct in China but survived in elements of Japan's Shingon and Tendai sects.
There are differing views as to just when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice started. In the Tibetan tradition, it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but as these are esoteric teachings, they were passed on orally first and only written down long after the Buddha's other teachings. Nālandā University became a center for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the source of leading-edge Vajrayāna practices up through the 11th century. These practices, scriptures and theories were transmitted to China, Tibet, Indochina and Southeast Asia. China generally received Indian transmission up to the 11th century including tantric practice, while a vast amount of what is considered to be Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayāna) stems from the late (9th–12th century) Nālandā tradition.
In one of the first major contemporary academic treatises on the subject, Fairfield University professor Ronald M. Davidson argues that the rise of Vajrayana was in part a reaction to the changing political climate in India at the time. With the fall of the Gupta dynasty, in an increasingly fractious political environment, institutional Buddhism had difficulty attracting patronage, and the folk movement led by siddhas became more prominent. After perhaps two hundred years, it had begun to get integrated into the monastic establishment.
Vajrayana combined and developed a variety of elements, a number of which had already existed for centuries. In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognise a large body of Buddhist Tantras, some of which are also included in Chinese and Japanese collections of Buddhist literature, and versions of a few even in the PaliCanon.
Buddhist texts
Buddhist scriptures and other texts exist in great variety. Different schools of Buddhism place varying levels of value on learning the various texts. Some schools venerate certain texts as religious objects in themselves, while others take a more scholastic approach. Buddhist scriptures are written in these languages: Pāli, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, along with some texts that still exist in Sanskrit and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit.
Unlike many religions, Buddhism has no single central text that is universally referred to by all traditions. However, some scholars have referred to the Vinaya Pitaka and the first four Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka as the common core of all Buddhist traditions.[188] However, this could be considered misleading, as Mahāyāna considers these merely a preliminary, and not a core, teaching, the Tibetan Buddhists have not even translated most of the āgamas, though theoretically they recognize them, and they play no part in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan.[189] Other scholars say there is no universally accepted common core.[190] The size and complexity of the Buddhist canons have been seen by some (including Buddhist social reformer Babasaheb Ambedkar) as presenting barriers to the wider understanding of Buddhist philosophy.
The followers of Theravāda Buddhism take the scriptures known as the Pāli Canon as definitive and authoritative, while the followers of Mahāyāna Buddhism base their faith and philosophy primarily on the Mahāyāna sūtras and their own vinaya. The Pāli sutras, along with other, closely related scriptures, are known to the other schools as the āgamas.
Over the years, various attempts have been made to synthesize a single Buddhist text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. In the Theravada tradition, condensed 'study texts' were created that combined popular or influential scriptures into single volumes that could be studied by novice monks. Later in Sri Lanka, the Dhammapada was championed as a unifying scripture.
Dwight Goddard collected a sample of Buddhist scriptures, with the emphasis on Zen, along with other classics of Eastern philosophy, such as the Tao Te Ching, into his 'Buddhist Bible' in the 1920s. More recently, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar attempted to create a single, combined document of Buddhist principles in "The Buddha and His Dhamma". Other such efforts have persisted to present day, but currently there is no single text that represents all Buddhist traditions.
Pāli Tipitaka
The Pāli Tipitaka, which means "three baskets", refers to its three main:
The Vinaya Pitaka contains disciplinary rules for the Buddhist monks and nuns, as well as explanations of why and how these rules were instituted, supporting material, and doctrinal clarification.
The Sutta Pitaka contains discourses ascribed to Gautama Buddha.
The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains material often described as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
The Pāli Tipitaka is the only early Tipitaka (Sanskrit: Tripiṭaka) to survive intact in its original language, but a number of early schools had their own recensions of the Tipitaka featuring much of the same material. We have portions of the Tipitakas of the Sārvāstivāda, Dharmaguptaka, Sammitya, Mahāsaṅghika, Kāśyapīya, and Mahīśāsaka schools, most of which survive in Chinese translation only. According to some sources, some early schools of Buddhism had five or seven pitakas.
According to the scriptures, soon after the death of the Buddha, the first Buddhist council was held; a monk named Mahākāśyapa (Pāli: Mahākassapa) presided. The goal of the council was to record the Buddha's teachings. Upāli recited the vinaya. Ānanda, the Buddha's personal attendant, was called upon to recite the dhamma. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However, this record was initially transmitted orally in form of chanting, and was committed to text in the last century BCE. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements including discourses on the Dharma, commentaries on other teachings, cosmological and cosmogonical texts, stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives, and various other subjects.
Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically "Theravadin", but is instead the collection of teachings that this school preserved from the early, non-sectarian body of teachings. According to Peter Harvey, it contains material which is at odds with later Theravadin orthodoxy. He states:
The Theravadins, then, may have added texts to the Canon for some time, but they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from an earlier period.
Mahayana Sutras
The Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that the Mjlahayana Buddhist tradition holds are original teachings of the Buddha. The adherents of Mahayana accept both the early teachings and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and claim they were designed for different types of persons and different levels of spiritual understanding.
The Mahayana sutras often claim to articulate the Buddha's deeper, more advanced doctrines, reserved for those who follow the bodhisattva path. That path is explained as being built upon the motivation to liberate all living beings from unhappiness. Hence the name Mahāyāna (lit., the Great Vehicle).
According to Mahayana tradition, the Mahayana sutras were transmitted in secret, came from other Buddhas or Bodhisattvas, or were preserved in non-human worlds because human beings at the time couldn't understand them:
Some of our sources maintain the authenticity of certain other texts not found in the canons of these schools (the early schools). These texts are those held genuine by the later school, not one of the eighteen, which arrogated to itself the title of Mahayana, 'Great Vehicle'. According to the Mahayana historians these texts were admittedly unknown to the early schools of Buddhists. However, they had all been promulgated by the Buddha. [The Buddha’s] followers on earth, the sravakas ('pupils'), had not been sufficiently advanced to understand them, and hence were not given them to remember, but they were taught to various supernatural beings and then preserved in such places as the Dragon World.
—Indian Buddhism
Approximately six hundred Mahayana sutras have survived in Sanskrit or in Chinese or Tibetan translations. In addition, East Asian Buddhism recognizes some sutras regarded by scholars to be of Chinese rather than Indian origin.
Generally, scholars conclude that the Mahayana scriptures were composed from the first century CE onwards: "Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century."[194] five centuries after the historical Gautama Buddha, with some of them having their roots in other scriptures, composed in the first century BCE. It was not until after the fifth century CE that the Mahayana sutras started to influence the behavior of mainstream Buddhists in India: "But outside of texts, at least in India, at exactly the same period, very different—in fact seemingly older—ideas and aspirations appear to be motivating actual behavior, and old and established Hinnayana groups appear to be the only ones that are patronized and supported." These texts were apparently not universally accepted among Indian Buddhists when they appeared; the pejorative label 'Hinayana' was applied by Mahayana supporters to those who rejected the Mahayana sutras.
Only the Theravada school does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. As the modern Theravada school is descended from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts, debate exists as to whether the Theravada were historically included in the 'hinayana' designation; in the modern era, this label is seen as in any case derogatory, and generally avoided.
Comparative studies
Buddhism provides many opportunities for comparative study with a diverse range of subjects. For example, dependent origination can be considered one of Buddhism's contributions to metaphysics. Additionally, Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way not only provides a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coexist with various differing beliefs, customs and institutions in countries in which it has resided throughout its history. Also, Its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example, with various tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of close study.


How Is Buddhism Distinctive From Other Religions?
Buddhism is so different from other religions that some people question whether it is a religion at all. For example, the central focus of most religions is God, or gods. But Buddhism is non-theistic. The Buddha taught that believing in gods was not useful for those seeking to realize enlightenment.
Most religions are defined by their beliefs. But in Buddhism, merely believing in doctrines is beside the point. The Buddha said that we should not accept doctrines just because we read them in scripture or are taught them by priests.
Instead of teaching doctrines to be memorized and believed, the Buddha taught how we can realize truth for ourselves. The focus of Buddhism is on practice rather than belief. The major outline of Buddhist practice is the Eightfold Path.
Basic Teachings
In spite of its emphasis on free inquiry, Buddhism is not whatever you want it to be. It might best be understood as a discipline, and an exacting discipline at that. And although Buddhist teachings should not be accepted on blind faith, understanding what the Buddha taught is an important part of that discipline.
For example, the foundation of Buddhism is the Four Noble Truths. The Truths are:
The truth of suffering (dukkha)
The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya)
The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha)
The truth of the path that frees us from suffering (magga)
By themselves, the Truths don't seem like much, I realize. But beneath the Truths are countless layers of teachings on the nature of existence, the self, life, and death, not to mention suffering. The point is not to just "believe in" the teachings, but to explore them, understand them, and test them against one's own experience. It is the process of exploring, understanding, testing and realizing that is Buddhism.
Diverse Schools of Buddhism
About 2,000 years ago Buddhism divided into two major schools, called Theravada and Mahayana. For centuries, Theravada has been the dominant form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma (Myanmar) and Laos. Mahayana is dominant in China, Japan, Taiwan, Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia, Korea and Vietnam. In recent years, Mahayana also has gained many followers in India. Mahayana is further divided into many sub-schools, such as Pure Land and Zen.
The two schools differ primarily in their understanding of a doctrine called "anatman" or "anatta." According to this doctrine, there is no "self" in the sense of a permanent, integral, autonomous being within an individual existence. Anatman is a difficult teaching to understand, but understanding it is essential to making sense of Buddhism.
Very basically, Theravada considers anatman to mean that an individual's ego or personality is a delusion. Once freed of this delusion, the individual may enjoy the bliss of Nirvana. Mahayana pushes anatman further. In Mahayana, all phenomena are void of intrinsic identity and take identity only in relation to other phenomena. There is neither reality not not-reality; only relativity. The Mahayana teaching is called shunyata, "emptiness."
Wisdom, Compassion, Ethics
It is said that wisdom and compassion are the two eyes of Buddhism. "Wisdom," particularly in Mahayana Buddhism, refers to realization of anatman or shunyata. There are two words translated as "compassion" -- metta and karuna. Metta (Pali) is a benevolence toward all beings, without discrimination, that is free of selfish attachment. Karuna refers to active sympathy and gentle affection, a willingness to bear the pain of others, and possibly pity. Metta, karuna, mudita (sympathetic joy) and upeksha (limitless equanimity) are considered four divine states or immeasurable virtues that Buddhists are to cultivate in themselves.
Those who have perfected these virtues will respond to all circumstances correctly. For the rest of us, there are Precepts.
Clearing Up Confusion By Way of Conclusion
There are two things most people think they know about Buddhism -- that Buddhists believe in reincarnation, and that all Buddhists are vegetarian. These two statements are not true, however. Buddhist teachings on rebirth are considerably different from what most people call "reincarnation." And although vegetarianism is encouraged, in many sects it is considered a personal choice, not a requirement.

Sex and Buddhism

Most religions have rigid, elaborate rules about sexual conduct. Buddhists have the Third Precept -- in Pali, Kamesu micchacara veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami -- which is most commonly translated "Do not indulge in sexual misconduct" or "Do not misuse sex." However, for laypeople, the early scriptures are hazy about what constitutes "sexual misconduct."
Monks and nuns, of course, follow the many rules of the Vinaya-pitaka section of the Pali Canon. For example, monks and nuns who engage in sexual intercourse are "defeated"and are expelled automatically from the order. If a monk makes sexually suggestive comments to a woman, the community of monks must meet and address the transgression. A monk should avoid even the appearance of impropriety by being alone with a woman. Nuns may not allow men to touch, rub or fondle them anywhere between the collar-bone and the knees.
Clerics of most schools of Buddhism in Asia continue to follow the Vinaya-pitaka, with the exception of Japan.
Shinran Shonin (1173-1262), founder of the Jodo Shinshu school of Japanese Pure Land, married, and he authorized Jodo Shinshu priests to marry. In the centuries that followed, the marriage of Japanese Buddhist monks may not have been the rule, but it was a not-infrequent exception.
In 1872, the Meiji government decreed that Buddhist monks and priests (but not nuns) should be free to marry if they chose to do so. Soon "temple families" became commonplace (they had existed before the decree, actually, but people pretended not to notice) and the administration of temples and monasteries often became family businesses, handed down from fathers to sons. In Japan today -- and in schools of Buddhism imported to the West from Japan -- the issue of monastic celibacy is decided differently from sect to sect and from monk to monk.
The Challenge for Lay Buddhists
Let's go back to lay Buddhists and the vague precaution about "sexual misconduct." People mostly take cues about what constitutes "misconduct" from their culture, and we see this in much of Asian Buddhism. However, Buddhism began to spread in western nations just as many of the old cultural rules were disappearing. So what's "sexual misconduct"?
I hope we can all agree, without further discussion, that non-consensual or exploitative sex is "misconduct." Beyond that, it seems to me that Buddhism challenges us to think about sexual ethics very differently from the way most of us have been taught to think about them.
Living the Precepts
First, the precepts are not commandments. They are undertaken as a personal commitment to Buddhist practice. Falling short is unskillful (akusala) but not sinful -- there is no God to sin against.
Further, the precepts are principles, not rules. It's up to us to decide how to apply the principles. This takes a greater degree of discipline and self-honesty than the legalistic, "just follow the rules and don't ask questions" approach to ethics. The Buddha said "be a lamp onto yourself." He taught how to use our own judgments about religious and moral teachings.
Followers of other religions often argue that without clear, external rules, people will behave selfishly and do whatever they want. This sells humanity short, I think. Buddhism shows us that we can release our selfishness, greed and grasping and cultivate loving kindness and compassion.
Indeed, I would say that a person who remains in the grip of self-centered views and who has little compassion in his heart is not a moral person, no matter how many rules he follows. Such a person always finds a way to bend the rules to disregard and exploit others.
Specific Sexual Issues
Marriage. Most religions and moral codes of the West draw a clear, bright line around marriage. Sex inside the line, good. Sex outside the line, bad. Although monogamous marriage is the ideal, Buddhism generally takes the attitude that sex between two people who love each other is moral, whether they are married or not. On the other hand, sex within marriages can be abusive, and marriage doesn't make that abuse moral.
Homosexuality. You can find anti-homosexual teachings in some schools of Buddhism, but I believe these are based on cultural attitudes. My understanding is that the historical Buddha did not specifically address homosexuality, and I can think of no Buddhist teaching that would call for homosexual relationships to be treated differently from heterosexual relationships.
Desire. The Second Noble Truth teaches that the cause of suffering is craving or thirst (tanha). This doesn't mean cravings should be repressed or denied. Instead, in Buddhist practice we acknowledge our passions and learn to see they are empty, so they no longer control us. This is true for hate, greed and other emotions. Sexual desire is no different.
In The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics (1984), Robert Aitken Roshi said (pp. 41-42), "For all its ecstatic nature, for all its power, sex is just another human drive. If we avoid it just because it is more difficult to integrate than anger or fear, then we are simply saying that when the chips are down we cannot follow our own practice. This is dishonest and unhealthy."
I should mention that in Vajrayana Buddhism, the energy of desire becomes a means for enlightenment; see "Introduction to Buddhist Tantra."
The Middle Way
Western culture at the moment seems to be at war with itself over sex, with rigid puritanism on one side and licentiousness on the other. Always, Buddhism teaches us to avoid extremes and find a middle way. As individuals we may make different decisions, but wisdom (prajna) and loving kindness (metta), not lists of rules, show us the path.
Agnosticism
Agnosticism is the view that the truth value of certain claims—especially claims about the existence of any deity, but also other religious and metaphysical claims—is unknown or unknowable. Agnosticism can be defined in various ways, and is sometimes used to indicate doubt or a skeptical approach to questions. In some senses, agnosticism is a stance about the differences between belief and knowledge, rather than about any specific claim or belief. As such, the term agnostic does not necessarily signal a particular view about religion or God, as some agnostics also identify as theists or atheists.
Thomas Henry Huxley, an English biologist, coined the word agnostic in 1860. However, earlier thinkers and written works have promoted agnostic points of view. They include Protagoras, a 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher, and a creation story in the Rigveda, an ancient Hindu religious text. Since Huxley coined the term, many other thinkers have written extensively about agnosticism, ranging from Albert Einstein to Pope Benedict XVI.
Defining agnosticism
Demographic research services normally list agnostics in the same category as atheists and/or non-religious people. Some sources use agnostic in the sense of noncommittal. Agnosticism often overlaps with other belief systems. Agnostic theists identify themselves both as agnostics and as followers of particular religions, viewing agnosticism as a framework for thinking about the nature of belief and their relation to revealed truths. Some nonreligious people, such as author Philip Pullman, identify as both agnostic and atheist.
Etymology
Agnostic (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge) was used by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1860 to describe his philosophy which rejects all claims of spiritual or mystical knowledge. Early Christian church leaders used the Greek word gnosis (knowledge) to describe "spiritual knowledge." Agnosticism is not to be confused with religious views opposing the ancient religious movement of Gnosticism in particular; Huxley used the term in a broader, more abstract sense. Huxley identified agnosticism not as a creed but rather as a method of skeptical, evidence-based inquiry.
In recent years, scientific literature dealing with neuroscience and psychology has used the word to mean "not knowable".In technical and marketing literature, agnostic often has a meaning close to "independent"—for example, "platform agnostic" or "hardware agnostic."
Qualifying agnosticism
Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume contended that meaningful statements about the universe are always qualified by some degree of doubt.. He asserted that the fallibility of human beings means that they cannot obtain absolute certainty except in trivial cases where a statement is true by definition (i.e. tautologies such as "all bachelors are unmarried" or "all triangles have three angles"). All rational statements that assert a factual claim about the universe that begin "I believe that ...." are simply shorthand for, "Based on my knowledge, understanding, and interpretation of the prevailing evidence, I tentatively believe that...." For instance, when one says, "I believe that Lee Harvey Oswald shot John F. Kennedy," one is not asserting an absolute truth but a tentative belief based on interpretation of the assembled evidence. Even though one may set an alarm clock prior to the following day, believing that waking up will be possible, that belief is tentative, tempered by a small but finite degree of doubt (the earth might be destroyed, or one might die before the alarm goes off).
The Catholic Church sees merit in examining what it calls Partial Agnosticism, specifically those systems that "do not aim at constructing a complete philosophy of the Unknowable, but at excluding special kinds of truth, notably religious, from the domain of knowledge." However, the Church is historically opposed to a full denial of the ability of human reason to know God. The Council of the Vatican, relying on biblical scripture, declares that "God, the beginning and end of all, can, by the natural light of human reason, be known with certainty from the works of creation" (Const. De Fide, II, De Rev.)
Types of agnosticism
Agnosticism can be subdivided into several categories. Recently suggested variations include:
Strong agnosticism (also called "hard," "closed," "strict," or "permanent agnosticism")
the view that the question of the existence or nonexistence of a deity or deities and the nature of ultimate reality is unknowable by reason of our natural inability to verify any experience with anything but another subjective experience. A strong agnostic would say, "I cannot know whether a deity exists or not, and neither can you."
Weak agnosticism (also called "soft," "open," "empirical," or "temporal agnosticism")
the view that the existence or nonexistence of any deities is currently unknown but is not necessarily unknowable, therefore one will withhold judgment until/if any evidence is available. A weak agnostic would say, "I don't know whether any deities exist or not, but maybe one day when there is evidence we can find something out."
Apathetic agnosticism (also called Pragmatic agnosticism)
the view that there is no proof of either the existence or nonexistence of any deity, but since any deity that may exist appears unconcerned for the universe or the welfare of its inhabitants, the question is largely academic.[citation needed]
Agnostic atheism
the view of those who do not claim to know of the existence of any deity, but do not believe in any.
Agnostic theism (also called "spiritual agnosticism")
the view of those who do not claim to know of the existence of any deity, but still believe in such an existence. Søren Kierkegaard believed that knowledge of any deity is impossible, and because of that people who want to be theists must believe: "If I am capable of grasping God objectively, I do not believe, but precisely because I cannot do this I must believe." (See Knowledge vs. Beliefs.)
Ignosticism
the view that a coherent definition of a deity must be put forward before the question of the existence of a deity can be meaningfully discussed. If the chosen definition isn't coherent, the ignostic holds the noncognitivist view that the existence of a deity is meaningless or empirically untestable. A.J. Ayer, Theodore Drange, and other philosophers see both atheism and agnosticism as incompatible with ignosticism on the grounds that atheism and agnosticism accept "a deity exists" as a meaningful proposition which can be argued for or against. An ignostic cannot even say whether he/she is a theist or a nontheist until a better definition of theism is put forth.[15][not in citation given]
History of agnostic thought
Since Huxley first used the term, several writers have defended agnosticism as a philosophical viewpoint. A number of earlier thinkers and writings have explored agnostic thought.
Agnosticism in the Rigveda
The Rigveda is an ancient Indian text, considered sacred in Hinduism, that dates from between 1700 and 1100 BCE Agnostic ideas are explored in the Nasadiya Sukta, a creation hymn that describes the emergence of the universe. The last lines of the text read:
Who really knows? Who will here proclaim it? Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation? The gods came afterwards, with the creation of the universe. Who then knows whence it has arisen? Whence this creation has arisen—perhaps it formed itself, or perhaps it did not—the one who looks down on it, in the highest heaven, only He knows—or perhaps He does not know.
In Greek Philosophy
Agnostic thought, in the form of skepticism, emerged as a formal philosophical position in ancient Greece. Its proponents included Protagoras, Pyrrho, and Carneades. Such thinkers rejected the idea that certainty was possible.
Thomas Henry Huxley

Agnostic views are as old as philosophical skepticism, but the terms agnostic and agnosticism were created by Huxley to sum up his thoughts on contemporary developments of metaphysics about the "unconditioned" (Hamilton) and the "unknowable" (Herbert Spencer). It is important, therefore, to discover Huxley's own views on the matter. Though Huxley began to use the term "agnostic" in 1869, his opinions had taken shape some time before that date. In a letter of September 23, 1860, to Charles Kingsley, Huxley discussed his views extensively:
I neither affirm nor deny the immortality of man. I see no reason for believing it, but, on the other hand, I have no means of disproving it. I have no a priori objections to the doctrine. No man who has to deal daily and hourly with nature can trouble himself about a priori difficulties. Give me such evidence as would justify me in believing in anything else, and I will believe that. Why should I not? It is not half so wonderful as the conservation of force or the indestructibility of matter...
It is no use to talk to me of analogies and probabilities. I know what I mean when I say I believe in the law of the inverse squares, and I will not rest my life and my hopes upon weaker convictions...
That my personality is the surest thing I know may be true. But the attempt to conceive what it is leads me into mere verbal subtleties. I have champed up all that chaff about the ego and the non-ego, noumena and phenomena, and all the rest of it, too often not to know that in attempting even to think of these questions, the human intellect flounders at once out of its depth.
And again, to the same correspondent, May 6, 1863:
I have never had the least sympathy with the a priori reasons against orthodoxy, and I have by nature and disposition the greatest possible antipathy to all the atheistic and infidel school. Nevertheless I know that I am, in spite of myself, exactly what the Christian would call, and, so far as I can see, is justified in calling, atheist and infidel. I cannot see one shadow or tittle of evidence that the great unknown underlying the phenomenon of the universe stands to us in the relation of a Father [who] loves us and cares for us as Christianity asserts. So with regard to the other great Christian dogmas, immortality of soul and future state of rewards and punishments, what possible objection can I—who am compelled perforce to believe in the immortality of what we call Matter and Force, and in a very unmistakable present state of rewards and punishments for our deeds—have to these doctrines? Give me a scintilla of evidence, and I am ready to jump at them.
Of the origin of the name agnostic to describe this attitude, Huxley gave the following account:
When I reached intellectual maturity and began to ask myself whether I was an atheist, a theist, or a pantheist; a materialist or an idealist; Christian or a freethinker; I found that the more I learned and reflected, the less ready was the answer; until, at last, I came to the conclusion that I had neither art nor part with any of these denominations, except the last. The one thing in which most of these good people were agreed was the one thing in which I differed from them. They were quite sure they had attained a certain "gnosis,"–had, more or less successfully, solved the problem of existence; while I was quite sure I had not, and had a pretty strong conviction that the problem was insoluble.
So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of "agnostic." It came into my head as suggestively antithetic to the "gnostic" of Church history, who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant. To my great satisfaction the term took.
Huxley's agnosticism is believed to be a natural consequence of the intellectual and philosophical conditions of the 1860s, when clerical intolerance was trying to suppress scientific discoveries which appeared to clash with a literal reading of the Book of Genesis and other established Jewish and Christian doctrines. Agnosticism should not, however, be confused with natural theology, deism, pantheism, or other science positive forms of theism.
By way of clarification, Huxley states, "In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration. And negatively: In matters of the intellect, do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable" (Huxley, Agnosticism, 1889). Although A. W. Momerie has noted that this is nothing but a definition of honesty, Huxley's usual definition goes beyond mere honesty to insist that these metaphysical issues are fundamentally unknowable.
Robert G. Ingersoll
Robert G. Ingersoll, an Illinois lawyer and politician who evolved into a well-known and sought-after orator in 19th century America, has been referred to as the "Great Agnostic."
In an 1896 lecture titled Why I Am An Agnostic, Ingersoll related why he was an agnostic:
Is there a supernatural power—an arbitrary mind—an enthroned God—a supreme will that sways the tides and currents of the world—to which all causes bow? I do not deny. I do not know—but I do not believe. I believe that the natural is supreme—that from the infinite chain no link can be lost or broken—that there is no supernatural power that can answer prayer—no power that worship can persuade or change—no power that cares for man.
I believe that with infinite arms Nature embraces the all—that there is no interference—no chance—that behind every event are the necessary and countless causes, and that beyond every event will be and must be the necessary and countless effects.
Is there a God? I do not know. Is man immortal? I do not know. One thing I do know, and that is, that neither hope, nor fear, belief, nor denial, can change the fact. It is as it is, and it will be as it must be.
In the conclusion of the speech he simply sums up the agnostic position as:
We can be as honest as we are ignorant. If we are, when asked what is beyond the horizon of the known, we must say that we do not know.
Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell's pamphlet, Why I Am Not a Christian, based on a speech delivered in 1927 and later included in a book of the same title, is considered a classic statement of agnosticism. The essay briefly lays out Russell’s objections to some of the arguments for the existence of God before discussing his moral objections to Christian teachings. He then calls upon his readers to "stand on their own two feet and look fair and square at the world," with a "fearless attitude and a free intelligence."
In 1939, Russell gave a lecture on The existence and nature of God, in which he characterized himself as an atheist. He said:
The existence and nature of God is a subject of which I can discuss only half. If one arrives at a negative conclusion concerning the first part of the question, the second part of the question does not arise; and my position, as you may have gathered, is a negative one on this matter.
However, later in the same lecture, discussing modern non-anthropomorphic concepts of God, Russell states:
That sort of God is, I think, not one that can actually be disproved, as I think the omnipotent and benevolent creator can.
In Russell's 1947 pamphlet, Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic? (subtitled A Plea For Tolerance In The Face Of New Dogmas), he ruminates on the problem of what to call himself:
As a philosopher, if I were speaking to a purely philosophic audience I should say that I ought to describe myself as an Agnostic, because I do not think that there is a conclusive argument by which one can prove that there is not a God.
On the other hand, if I am to convey the right impression to the ordinary man in the street I think I ought to say that I am an Atheist, because when I say that I cannot prove that there is not a God, I ought to add equally that I cannot prove that there are not the Homeric gods.
In his 1953 essay, What Is An Agnostic? Russell states:
An agnostic thinks it impossible to know the truth in matters such as God and the future life with which Christianity and other religions are concerned. Or, if not impossible, at least impossible at the present time.
However, later in the essay, Russell says:
I think that if I heard a voice from the sky predicting all that was going to happen to me during the next twenty-four hours, including events that would have seemed highly improbable, and if all these events then produced to happen, I might perhaps be convinced at least of the existence of some superhuman intelligence.


Criticism of agnosticism
Agnosticism is criticized from a variety of standpoints. Some religious thinkers see agnosticism as a limitation of the mind's capacity to know reality other than material objects. Some atheists also criticize the use of the term agnosticism as functionally indistinguishable from atheism.
Religious criticism
Most theistic thinkers repudiate the validity of agnosticism, or certain forms of agnosticism. Religious scholars in the three Abrahamic religions affirm the possibility of knowledge, even of metaphysical realities such as God and the soul, because human intelligence, they assert, has a non-material, spiritual element. They affirm that “not being able to see or hold some specific thing does not necessarily negate its existence,” as in the case of gravity, entropy, or reason and thought.

Religious scholars, such as Brown, Tacelli, and Kreeft, argue that agnosticism does not take into account the numerous evidence of his existence that God has placed in his creation. And for this, Peter Kreeft and Ronald Tacelli cite 20 arguments for God’s existence. They assert that agnosticism's demand for scientific evidence through laboratory testing is in effect asking God, the supreme being, to become man’s servant. They argue that the question of God should be treated differently from other knowable objects in that "this question regards not that which is below us, but that which is above us." Christian Philosopher Blaise Pascal argued that, even if there were truly no evidence for God, agnostics should consider what is now known as Pascal’s Wager: the infinite expected value of acknowledging God is always greater than the finite expected value of not acknowledging his existence, and thus it is a safer “bet” to choose God.
According to Joseph Ratzinger, later Pope Benedict XVI, agnosticism, more specifically strong agnosticism, is reasoning that limits and contradicts itself in claiming the power of reason to know scientific truth, but not religious or philosophical truths. He blames the exclusion of reasoning from religion and ethics for the dangerous pathologies of religion and science such as human and ecological disasters. “Agnosticism,” said Ratzinger, “is always the fruit of a refusal of that knowledge which is in fact offered to man [...] The knowledge of God has always existed.” He asserted that agnosticism is a choice of comfort, pride, dominion, and utility over truth, and is opposed by the following attitudes: the keenest self-criticism, humble listening to the whole of existence, the persistent patience and self-correction of the scientific method, a readiness to be purified by the truth.
According to some theistic scholars, agnosticism is impossible in actual practice, since a person can live only either as if God did not exist (etsi Deus non daretur), or as if God did exist (etsi Deus daretur). These scholars believe that each day in a person’s life is an unavoidable step towards death, and thus not to decide for or against God, whom they view as the all-encompassing foundation, purpose, and meaning of life, is to decide in favor of atheism.
Atheist criticism
According to Richard Dawkins, a distinction between agnosticism and atheism is unwieldy and depends on how close to zero we are willing to rate the existence of any given god-like entity. Since in practice it is not worth contrasting a zero probability with a probability that is nearly indistinguishable from zero, he prefers to categorize himself as a "de facto atheist

Atheism
Atheism can be either the rejection of theism, or the position that deities do not exist.[2] In the broadest sense, it is the absence of belief in the existence of deities.[3]
The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without gods", which was applied with a negative connotation to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves as "atheist" appeared in the 18th century. Today, about 2.3% of the world's population describes itself as atheist, while a further 11.9% is described as nontheist.[4] Between 64% and 65% of Japanese describe themselves as atheists, agnostics, or non-believers,[5][6] and to 48% in Russia.[5] The percentage of such persons in European Union member states ranges as low as single digits in Italy and some other countries, and up to 85% in Sweden.[5]
Atheists tend to lean towards skepticism regarding supernatural claims, citing a lack of empirical evidence. Common rationales include the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, and the argument from nonbelief. Other arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to the social to the historical. Although some atheists tend toward secular philosophies such as humanism, rationalism, and naturalism, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere.
In Western culture, atheists are frequently assumed to be exclusively irreligious or unspiritual. However, religious and spiritual belief systems such as forms of Buddhism that do not advocate belief in gods, have also been described as atheistic.
Etymology

In early Ancient Greek, the adjective atheos (ἄθεος, from the privative ἀ- + θεός "god") meant "godless". The word began to indicate more-intentional, active godlessness in the 5th century BCE, acquiring definitions of "severing relations with the gods" or "denying the gods" instead of the earlier meaning of ἀσεβής (asebēs) or "impious". Modern translations of classical texts sometimes render atheos as "atheistic". As an abstract noun, there was also ἀθεότης (atheotēs), "atheism". Cicero transliterated the Greek word into the Latin atheos. The term found frequent use in the debate between early Christians and Hellenists, with each side attributing it, in the pejorative sense, to the other.
In English, the term atheism was derived from the French athéisme in about 1587. The term atheist (from Fr. athée), in the sense of "one who denies or disbelieves the existence of God", predates atheism in English, being first attested in about 1571. Atheist as a label of practical godlessness was used at least as early as 1577. Related words emerged later: deist in 1621, theist in 1662; theism in 1678; and deism in 1682. Deism and theism changed meanings slightly around 1700, due to the influence of atheism; deism was originally used as a synonym for today's theism, but came to denote a separate philosophical doctrine.
Karen Armstrong writes that "During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the word 'atheist' was still reserved exclusively for polemic ... The term 'atheist' was an insult. Nobody would have dreamed of calling himself an atheist."[23] Atheism was first used to describe a self-avowed belief in late 18th-century Europe, specifically denoting disbelief in the monotheistic Abrahamic god. In the 20th century, globalization contributed to the expansion of the term to refer to disbelief in all deities, though it remains common in Western society to describe atheism as simply "disbelief in God".
Definitions and distinctions
chart showing the relationship between the definitions of weak/strong and implicit/explicit atheism. An implicit atheist has not thought about belief in gods, and would be described as being implicitly without a belief in gods. An explicit atheist has made an assertion regarding belief in gods. An explicit atheist may eschew belief in gods (weak atheism), or further conclude that gods do not exist (strong atheism). (Relative sizes on diagram are not meant to indicate actual sizes in populations.)
Writers disagree how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities it applies to, whether it is an assertion in its own right or merely the absence of one, and whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection. A variety of categories have been proposed to try to distinguish the different forms of atheism.
Range
Some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of god and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability. The ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. In the 20th century, this view has fallen into disfavor as theism has come to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity.
With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Hinduism and Buddhism.
Implicit vs. explicit
Definitions of atheism also vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist. Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief that any deities exist. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas. As far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said that "All children are born Atheists; they have no idea of God." Similarly, George H. Smith (1979) suggested that: "The man who is unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god. This category would also include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but who is still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Smith coined the term implicit atheism to refer to "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism to refer to the more common definition of conscious disbelief.
In Western civilization, the view that children are born atheist is relatively recent. Before the 18th century, the existence of God was so universally accepted in the western world that even the possibility of true atheism was questioned. This is called theistic innatism—the notion that all people believe in God from birth; within this view was the connotation that atheists are simply in denial. There is a position claiming that atheists are quick to believe in God in times of crisis, that atheists make deathbed conversions, or that "there are no atheists in foxholes." Some proponents of this view claim that the anthropological benefit of religion is that religious faith enables humans to endure hardships better (cf.opium of the people Karl Marx, Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher February, 1844). Some atheists emphasize the fact that there have been examples to the contrary, among them examples of literal "atheists in foxholes."
Strong vs. weak
Philosophers such as Antony Flew, Michael Martin, and William L. Rowe] have contrasted strong (positive) atheism with weak (negative) atheism. Strong atheism is the explicit affirmation that gods do not exist. Weak atheism includes all other forms of non-theism. According to this categorization, anyone who is not a theist is either a weak or a strong atheist. The terms weak and strong are relatively recent, while the equivalent terms negative and positive atheism are of older origin, having been used (in slightly different ways) in the philosophical literature and in Catholic apologetics since at least 1813. Under this demarcation of atheism, most agnostics qualify as weak atheists.
While Martin, for example, asserts that agnosticism entails weak atheism, most agnostics see their view as distinct from atheism, which they may consider no more justified than theism or requiring an equal conviction. The supposed unattainability of knowledge for or against the existence of gods is sometimes seen as indication that atheism requires a leap of faith. Common atheist responses to this argument include that unproven religious propositions deserve as much disbelief as all other unproven propositions, and that the unprovability of a god's existence does not imply equal probability of either possibility. Scottish philosopher J. J. C. Smart even argues that "sometimes a person who is really an atheist may describe herself, even passionately, as an agnostic because of unreasonable generalised philosophical skepticism which would preclude us from saying that we know anything whatever, except perhaps the truths of mathematics and formal logic." Consequently, some popular atheist authors such as Richard Dawkins prefer distinguishing theist, agnostic and atheist positions by the probability assigned to the statement "God exists".
Other usage of the term "Positive Atheism"
As mentioned above, the terms negative and positive have been used in philosophical literature in a similar manner to the terms weak and strong. However, the book Positive Atheism by Gora, first published in 1972, introduced an alternative use for the phrase. Having grown up in a hierarchical system with a religious basis, Gora called for a secular India and suggested guidelines for a positive atheist philosophy, meaning one that promotes positive values. Positive atheism entails such things as a being morally upright, showing an understanding that religious people have reasons to believe, not proselytising or lecturing others about atheism, and defending oneself with truthfulness instead of aiming to 'win' any confrontations with outspoken critics.
Rationale
The broadest demarcation of atheistic rationale is between practical and theoretical atheism. The different forms of theoretical atheism each derive from a particular rationale or philosophical argument. In contrast, practical atheism requires no specific argument, and can include indifference to and ignorance of the idea of gods.
Practical atheism
In practical, or pragmatic, atheism, also known as apatheism, individuals live as if there are no gods and explain natural phenomena without resorting to the divine. The existence of gods is not denied, but may be designated unnecessary or useless; gods neither provide purpose to life, nor influence everyday life, according to this view. A form of practical atheism with implications for the scientific community is methodological naturalism—the "tacit adoption or assumption of philosophical naturalism within scientific method with or without fully accepting or believing it."
Practical atheism can take various forms:
• Absence of religious motivation—belief in gods does not motivate moral action, religious action, or any other form of action;
• Active exclusion of the problem of gods and religion from intellectual pursuit and practical action;
• Indifference—the absence of any interest in the problems of gods and religion; or
• Unawareness of the concept of a deity.
Theoretical atheism
Theoretical (or theoric) atheism explicitly posits arguments against the existence of gods, responding to common theistic arguments such as the argument from design or Pascal's Wager. The theoretical reasons for rejecting gods assume various forms, above all ontological, gnoseological, and epistemological, but also sometimes psychological and sociological forms.
Epistemological and ontological arguments
Epistemological atheism argues that people cannot know God or determine the existence of God. The foundation of epistemological atheism is agnosticism, which takes a variety of forms. In the philosophy of immanence, divinity is inseparable from the world itself, including a person's mind, and each person's consciousness is locked in the subject. According to this form of agnosticism, this limitation in perspective prevents any objective inference from belief in a god to assertions of its existence. The rationalistic agnosticism of Kant and the Enlightenment only accepts knowledge deduced with human rationality; this form of atheism holds that gods are not discernible as a matter of principle, and therefore cannot be known to exist. Skepticism, based on the ideas of Hume, asserts that certainty about anything is impossible, so one can never know the existence of God. The allocation of agnosticism to atheism is disputed; it can also be regarded as an independent, basic worldview.
Other arguments for atheism that can be classified as epistemological or ontological, including logical positivism and ignosticism, assert the meaninglessness or unintelligibility of basic terms such as "God" and statements such as "God is all-powerful." Theological noncognitivism holds that the statement "God exists" does not express a proposition, but is nonsensical or cognitively meaningless. It has been argued both ways as to whether such individuals can be classified into some form of atheism or agnosticism. Philosophers A. J. Ayer and Theodore M. Drange reject both categories, stating that both camps accept "God exists" as a proposition; they instead place noncognitivism in its own category.
Metaphysical arguments
Metaphysical atheism is based on metaphysical monism—the view that reality is homogeneous and indivisible. Absolute metaphysical atheists subscribe to some form of physicalism, hence they explicitly deny the existence of non-physical beings. Relative metaphysical atheists maintain an implicit denial of a particular concept of God based on the incongruity between their individual philosophies and attributes commonly applied to God, such as transcendence, a personal aspect, or unity. Examples of relative metaphysical atheism include pantheism, panentheism, and deism
Psychological, sociological, and economical arguments
Philosophers such as Ludwig Feuerbach[]and Sigmund Freud argued that God and other religious beliefs are human inventions, created to fulfill various psychological and emotional wants or needs. This is also a view of many Buddhists. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, influenced by the work of Feuerbach, argued that belief in God and religion are social functions, used by those in power to oppress the working class. According to Mikhail Bakunin, "the idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice; it is the most decisive negation of human liberty, and necessarily ends in the enslavement of mankind, in theory and practice." He reversed Voltaire's famous aphorism that if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him, writing instead that "if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him."
Recently, Michel Onfray, who regards himself as part of the tradition of individualist anarchism, has sought to revive this tradition as an argument for atheism, amidst modern schools of philosophy that he feels are cynical and epicurean.[citation needed]
Logical and evidential arguments
Logical atheism holds that the various conceptions of gods, such as the personal god of Christianity, are ascribed logically inconsistent qualities. Such atheists present deductive arguments against the existence of God, which assert the incompatibility between certain traits, such as perfection, creator-status, immutability, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, omnibenevolence, transcendence, personhood (a personal being), nonphysicality, justice and mercy.
Theodicean atheists believe that the world as they experience it cannot be reconciled with the qualities commonly ascribed to God and gods by theologians. They argue that an omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent God is not compatible with a world where there is evil and suffering, and where divine love is hidden from many people. A similar argument is attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism.
Anthropocentric arguments
Axiological, or constructive, atheism rejects the existence of gods in favor of a "higher absolute", such as humanity. This form of atheism favors humanity as the absolute source of ethics and values, and permits individuals to resolve moral problems without resorting to God. Marx, Freud, and Sartre all used this argument to convey messages of liberation, full-development, and unfettered happiness.
One of the most common criticisms of atheism has been to the contrary—that denying the existence of a god leads to moral relativism, leaving one with no moral or ethical foundation, or renders life meaningless and miserable. Blaise Pascal argued this view in 1669.
History
Although the term atheism originated in 16th-century France, ideas that would be recognized today as atheistic are documented from classical antiquity and the Vedic period.
Early Indic religion
Atheistic schools are found in Hinduism, which is otherwise a very theistic religion. The thoroughly materialistic and anti-theistic philosophical Cārvāka School that originated in India around 6th century BCE is probably the most explicitly atheistic school of philosophy in India. This branch of Indian philosophy is classified as a heterodox system and is not considered part of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism, but it is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism. Chatterjee and Datta explain that our understanding of Cārvāka philosophy is fragmentary, based largely on criticism of the ideas by other schools, and that it is not a living tradition:
"Though materialism in some form or other has always been present in India, and occasional references are found in the Vedas, the Buddhistic literature, the Epics, as well as in the later philosophical works we do not find any systematic work on materialism, nor any organized school of followers as the other philosophical schools possess. But almost every work of the other schools states, for refutation, the materialistic views. Our knowledge of Indian materialism is chiefly based on these."
Other Indian philosophies generally regarded as atheistic include Classical Samkhya and Purva Mimamsa. The rejection of a personal creator God is also seen in Jainism and Buddhism in India.
Classical antiquity
Western atheism has its roots in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy, but did not emerge as a distinct world-view until the late Enlightenment. The 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher Diagoras is known as the "first atheist", and is cited as such by Cicero in his De Natura Deorum. Critias viewed religion as a human invention used to frighten people into following moral order. Atomists such as Democritus attempted to explain the world in a purely materialistic way, without reference to the spiritual or mystical. Other pre-Socratic philosophers who probably had atheistic views included Prodicus and Protagoras. In the 3rd-century BCE the Greek philosophers Theodorus Cirenaicus]and Strato of Lampsacus[] also did not believe gods exist.
Socrates (c. 471–399 BCE), was accused of impiety (see Euthyphro dilemma) on the basis that he inspired questioning of the state gods. Although he disputed the accusation that he was a "complete atheist", saying that he could not be an atheist as he believed in spirits, he was ultimately sentenced to death. Socrates also prays to various gods in Plato's dialogue Phaedrus ]and says "By Zeus" in the dialogue The Republic.
Euhemerus (c. 330–260 BCE) published his view that the gods were only the deified rulers, conquerors and founders of the past, and that their cults and religions were in essence the continuation of vanished kingdoms and earlier political structures. Although not strictly an atheist, Euhemerus was later criticized for having "spread atheism over the whole inhabited earth by obliterating the gods".
Atomic materialist Epicurus (c. 341–270 BCE) disputed many religious doctrines, including the existence of an afterlife or a personal deity; he considered the soul purely material and mortal. While Epicureanism did not rule out the existence of gods, he believed that if they did exist, they were unconcerned with humanity.
The Roman poet Lucretius (c. 99–55 BCE) agreed that, if there were gods, they were unconcerned with humanity and unable to affect the natural world. For this reason, he believed humanity should have no fear of the supernatural. He expounds his Epicurean views of the cosmos, atoms, the soul, mortality, and religion in De rerum natura ("On the nature of things"), which popularized Epicurus' philosophy in Rome.
The Roman philosopher Sextus Empiricus held that one should suspend judgment about virtually all beliefs—a form of skepticism known as Pyrrhonism—that nothing was inherently evil, and that ataraxia ("peace of mind") is attainable by withholding one's judgment. His relatively large volume of surviving works had a lasting influence on later philosophers.
The meaning of "atheist" changed over the course of classical antiquity. The early Christians were labeled atheists by non-Christians because of their disbelief in pagan gods.During the Roman Empire, Christians were executed for their rejection of the Roman gods in general and Emperor-worship in particular. When Christianity became the state religion of Rome under Theodosius I in 381, heresy became a punishable offense.
Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance
The espousal of atheistic views was rare in Europe during the Early Middle Ages and Middle Ages (see Medieval Inquisition); metaphysics, religion and theology were the dominant interests.There were, however, movements within this period that forwarded heterodox conceptions of the Christian God, including differing views of the nature, transcendence, and knowability of God. Individuals and groups such as Johannes Scotus Eriugena, David of Dinant, Amalric of Bena, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit maintained Christian viewpoints with pantheistic tendencies. Nicholas of Cusa held to a form of fideism he called docta ignorantia ("learned ignorance"), asserting that God is beyond human categorization, and our knowledge of God is limited to conjecture. William of Ockham inspired anti-metaphysical tendencies with his nominalistic limitation of human knowledge to singular objects, and asserted that the divine essence could not be intuitively or rationally apprehended by human intellect. Followers of Ockham, such as John of Mirecourt and Nicholas of Autrecourt furthered this view. The resulting division between faith and reason influenced later theologians such as John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, and Martin Luther.
The Renaissance did much to expand the scope of freethought and skeptical inquiry. Individuals such as Leonardo da Vinci sought experimentation as a means of explanation, and opposed arguments from religious authority. Other critics of religion and the Church during this time included Niccolò Machiavelli, Bonaventure des Périers, and François Rabelais.
Early modern period
The Renaissance and Reformation eras witnessed a resurgence in religious fervor, as evidenced by the proliferation of new religious orders, confraternities, and popular devotions in the Catholic world, and the appearance of increasingly austere Protestant sects such as the Calvinists. This era of interconfessional rivalry permitted an even wider scope of theological and philosophical speculation, much of which would later be used to advance a religiously skeptical world-view.
Criticism of Christianity became increasingly frequent in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and England, where there appears to have been a religious malaise, according to contemporary sources. Some Protestant thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes, espoused a materialist philosophy and skepticism toward supernatural occurrences, while the Jewish-Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza rejected divine providence in favour of a pantheistic naturalism. By the late 17th century, Deism came to be openly espoused by intellectuals such as John Toland. Despite their ridicule of Christianity, many Deists held atheism in scorn. The first known atheist who threw off the mantle of deism, bluntly denying the existence of gods, was Jean Meslier, a French priest who lived in the early 18th century. He was followed by other openly atheistic thinkers, such as Baron d'Holbach and Jacques-André Naigeon. The philosopher David Hume developed a skeptical epistemology grounded in empiricism, undermining the metaphysical basis of natural theology.
The French Revolution took atheism outside the salons and into the public sphere. Attempts to enforce the Civil Constitution of the Clergy led to anti-clerical violence and the expulsion of many clergy from France. The chaotic political events in revolutionary Paris eventually enabled the more radical Jacobins to seize power in 1793, ushering in the Reign of Terror. At its climax, the more militant atheists attempted to forcibly de-Christianize France, replacing religion with a Cult of Reason. These persecutions ended with the Thermidorian Reaction, but some of the secularizing measures of this period remained a permanent legacy of French politics.
The Napoleonic era institutionalized the secularization of French society, and exported the revolution to northern Italy, in the hopes of creating pliable republics. In the 19th century, many atheists and other anti-religious thinkers devoted their efforts to political and social revolution, facilitating the upheavals of 1848, the Risorgimento in Italy, and the growth of an international socialist movement.
In the latter half of the 19th century, atheism rose to prominence under the influence of rationalistic and freethinking philosophers. Many prominent German philosophers of this era denied the existence of deities and were critical of religion, including Ludwig Feuerbach, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Late modern period
Atheism in the 20th century, particularly in the form of practical atheism, advanced in many societies. Atheistic thought found recognition in a wide variety of other, broader philosophies, such as existentialism, objectivism, secular humanism, nihilism, logical positivism, Marxism, feminism, and the general scientific and rationalist movement.
Logical positivism and scientism paved the way for neopositivism, analytical philosophy, structuralism, and naturalism. Neopositivism and analytical philosophy discarded classical rationalism and metaphysics in favor of strict empiricism and epistemological nominalism. Proponents such as Bertrand Russell emphatically rejected belief in God. In his early work, Ludwig Wittgenstein attempted to separate metaphysical and supernatural language from rational discourse. A. J. Ayer asserted the unverifiability and meaninglessness of religious statements, citing his adherence to the empirical sciences. Relatedly the applied structuralism of Lévi-Strauss sourced religious language to the human subconscious in denying its transcendental meaning. J. N. Findlay and J. J. C. Smart argued that the existence of God is not logically necessary. Naturalists and materialistic monists such as John Dewey considered the natural world to be the basis of everything, denying the existence of God or immortality.
The 20th century also saw the political advancement of atheism, spurred on by interpretation of the works of Marx and Engels. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, increased religious freedom for minority religions lasted for a few years, before the policies of Stalinism turned towards repression of religion. The Soviet Union and other communist states promoted state atheism and opposed religion, often by violent means.
Other leaders like E. V. Ramasami Naicker (Periyar), a prominent atheist leader of India, fought against Hinduism and Brahmins for discriminating and dividing people in the name of caste and religion. This was highlighted in 1956 when he made the Hindu god Rama wear a garland made of slippers and made antitheistic statements.
In 1966, Time magazine asked "Is God Dead?" in response to the Death of God theological movement, citing the estimation that nearly half of all people in the world lived under an anti-religious power, and millions more in Africa, Asia, and South America seemed to lack knowledge of the Christian God. The following year, the Albanian government under Enver Hoxha announced the closure of all religious institutions in the country, declaring Albania the world's first officially atheist state. hese regimes enhanced the negative associations of atheism, especially where anti-communist sentiment was strong in the United States, despite the fact that prominent atheists were anti-communist.
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the number of actively anti-religious regimes has reduced considerably. In 2006, Timothy Shah of the Pew Forum noted "a worldwide trend across all major religious groups, in which God-based and faith-based movements in general are experiencing increasing confidence and influence vis-à-vis secular movements and ideologies." But Gregory S. Paul and Phil Zuckerman consider this a myth and suggest that the actual situation is much more complex and nuanced.
Demographics
It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. Respondents to religious-belief polls may define "atheism" differently or draw different distinctions between atheism, non-religious beliefs, and non-theistic religious and spiritual beliefs. A 2005 survey published in Encyclopædia Britannica found that the non-religious made up about 11.9% of the world's population, and atheists about 2.3%. This figure did not include those who follow atheistic religions, such as some Buddhists. A November–December 2006 poll published in the Financial Times gives rates for the United States and five European countries. It found that Americans are more likely than Europeans to report belief in any form of god or supreme being (73%). Of the European adults surveyed, Italians are the most likely to express this belief (62%) and the French the least likely (27%). In France, 32% declared themselves atheists, and an additional 32% declared themselves agnostic. An official European Union survey provides corresponding figures: 18% of the EU population do not believe in a god; 27% affirm the existence of some "spirit or life force", while 52% affirm belief in a specific god. The proportion of believers rises to 65% among those who had left school by age 15; survey respondents who considered themselves to be from a strict family background were more likely to believe in god than those who felt their upbringing lacked firm rules.
A letter published in Nature in 1998 reported a survey suggesting that belief in a personal god or afterlife was at an all-time low among the members of the U.S. National Academy of Science, only 7.0% of whom believed in a personal god as compared with more than 85% of the general U.S. population.In the same year, Frank Sulloway of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael Shermer of California State University conducted a study which found in their polling sample of "credentialed" U.S. adults (12% had Ph.Ds and 62% were college graduates) 64% believed in God, and there was a correlation indicating that religious conviction diminished with education level.[108] An inverse correlation between religiosity and intelligence has been found by 39 studies carried out between 1927 and 2002, according to an article in Mensa Magazine. These findings broadly agree with a 1958 statistical meta-analysis by Professor Michael Argyle of the University of Oxford. He analyzed seven research studies that had investigated correlation between attitude to religion and measured intelligence among school and college students from the U.S. Although a clear negative correlation was found, the analysis did not identify causality but noted that factors such as authoritarian family background and social class may also have played a part.
In the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing, in the question which asked What is your religion? Of the total survey population, 18.7% ticked the box marked no religion or wrote in a response which was classified as non religious (e.g. humanism, agnostic, atheist). This question was optional and 11.2% did not answer the question. In 2006, the New Zealand census asked, What is your religion?. Of those answering, 34.7% indicated no religion. 12.2% did not respond or objected to answering the question.
Atheism, religion, and morality
People who self-identify as atheists are often assumed to be irreligious, however, some sects within major religions reject the existence of a personal, creator deity. In recent years, certain religious denominations have accumulated a number of openly atheistic followers, such as atheistic or humanistic Judaism[]and Christian atheists.
The strictest sense of positive atheism does not entail any specific beliefs outside of disbelief in any deity; as such, atheists can hold any number of spiritual beliefs. For the same reason, atheists can hold a wide variety of ethical beliefs, ranging from the moral universalism of humanism, which holds that a moral code should be applied consistently to all humans, to moral nihilism, which holds that morality is meaningless.
Although it is a philosophical truism, encapsulated in Plato's Euthyphro dilemma that the role of the gods in determining right from wrong is either unnecessary or arbitrary, the argument that morality must be derived from God and cannot exist without a wise creator has been a persistent feature of political if not so much philosophical debate. Moral precepts such as "murder is wrong" are seen as divine laws, requiring a divine lawmaker and judge. However, many atheists argue that treating morality legalistically involves a false analogy, and that morality does not depend on a lawmaker in the same way that laws do.
Philosophers Susan Neiman] and Julian Baggini](among others) assert that behaving ethically only because of divine mandate is not true ethical behavior but merely blind obedience. Baggini argues that atheism is a superior basis for ethics, claiming that a moral basis external to religious imperatives is necessary to evaluate the morality of the imperatives themselves - to be able to discern, for example, that "thou shalt steal" is immoral even if one's religion instructs it - and that atheists, therefore, have the advantage of being more inclined to make such evaluations. The contemporary British political philosopher Martin Cohen has offered the more historically telling example of Biblical injunctions in favour of torture and slavery as evidence of how religious injunctions follow political and social customs, rather than vice versa, but also noted that the same tendency seems to be true of supposedly dispassionate and objective philosophers. Cohen extends this argument in more detail in Political Philosophy from Plato to Mao in the case of the Koran which he sees as having had a generally unfortunate role in preserving medieval social codes through changes in secular society.
Nonetheless, atheists such as Sam Harris have argued that Western religions' reliance on divine authority lends itself to authoritarianism and dogmatism. Indeed, religious fundamentalism and extrinsic religion (when religion is held because it serves other, more ultimate interests) have been correlated with authoritarianism, dogmatism, and prejudice. This argument, combined with historical events that are argued to demonstrate the dangers of religion, such as the Crusades, inquisitions, and witch trials, are often used by antireligious atheists to justify their views.


Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole. Although for many the term usually refers to Christians and churches belonging to the Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See, for others it refers to continuity "back to the earliest churches",as claimed even by churches in dispute with one another over doctrine and practice such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Old Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. The claim of continuity may be based on Apostolic Succession, especially in conjunction with adherence to the Nicene Creed. In this sense of indicating historical continuity, the term "catholicism" is at times employed to mark a contrast to Protestantism, which tends to look instead to the Bible as interpreted by the 16th-century Protestant Reformation as its ultimate standard. It was thus used by the Oxford Movement.
According to Richard McBrien, Catholicism is distinguished from other forms of Christianity in its particular understanding and commitment to tradition, the sacraments, the mediation between God, and communion. Catholicism can include a monastic life, religious orders, a religious appreciation of the arts, a communal understanding of sin and redemption, missionary activity, and always "communion the Bishop of Rome" and the degree or form of primacy that what he calls the Communion of Catholic Churches attribute to his chair or office.
McBrien maintains that Eastern Catholic Churches should not come under the heading "Roman Catholic Church": "The Catholic Church itself is a communion of local churches, known as dioceses and patriarchates, of Roman and non-Roman Churches." Thus "to be Catholic—whether Roman/Latin or non-Roman/Latin—is to be in full communion with the Bishop of Rome and as such an integral part of the Communion of Catholic Churches." Other writers, such as Kenneth D. Whitehead, disagree with McBrien by objecting to the use of the term "Roman Catholic Church" even for the Catholic Church of the West. Whitehead has pointed out that this term appears nowhere in the 16 documents of the Second Vatican Council. Avery Dulles pointed out that in the dogmatic constitution Lumen Gentium the Council used instead of "Roman Catholic Church" the circumlocution, "the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and the bishops in union with that successor", and referred only in a footnote to documents of similar authority that used the term "Roman" for the whole Church (the Profession of Faith of Trent and the documents of the First Vatican Council). The Popes continue to use the term "Roman Catholic Church", especially for identifying the Church unambiguously in written agreements with other churches, but even when addressing Catholics. In all these references, the Popes apply the term "Roman Catholic Church" to the whole Church, not to the Latin or Western Church. In popular usage also, "Catholic" usually means "Roman Catholic", a usage decried by some, including certain Protestants. "Catholic" usually refers to members of all the 23 constituent Churches, the one Western and the 22 Eastern. Newspaper reports generally reflect common usage.

Catholics believe that Jesus is the Messiah of the Old Testament's Messianic prophecies. The Nicene Creed states that he is "... the only begotten son of God, ... one in being with the Father. Through him all things were made". In an event known as the Incarnation, the Church teaches that, through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature when Jesus was conceived in the womb of a Jewish virgin named Mary. Jesus is believed, therefore, to be both fully divine and fully human. It is taught that Jesus' mission on earth included giving people his word and his example to follow, as recorded in the four Gospels. Catholicism teaches that following the example of Jesus helps believers to become closer to him, and therefore to grow in true love, freedom, and fullness of life.
Falling into sin is considered the opposite to following Jesus, weakening a person's resemblance to God and turning their soul away from his love. Sins range from the less serious venial sins to more serious mortal sins which end a person's relationship with God. The Church teaches that through the passion (suffering) of Jesus and his crucifixion, all people have an opportunity for forgiveness and freedom from sin, and so can be reconciled to God. The Resurrection of Jesus, according to Catholic belief, gained for humans a possible spiritual immortality previously denied to us because of original sin. John the Baptist called Jesus "the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world",in reference to the ancient Jewish practice of sacrificing lambs to God.By reconciling with God and following Jesus' words and deeds, the Church believes one can enter the Kingdom of God, which is the "... reign of God over people's hearts and lives."
After baptism, the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance or Confession) is the means by which Catholics believe they can obtain forgiveness for subsequent sin and receive God's grace. Catholics believe Jesus gave the apostles authority to forgive sins in God's name. After making an examination of conscience that often involves a review of the ten commandments, the sacrament involves confession of sins by an individual to a priest, who then offers advice and imposes a particular penance to be performed. The penitent then prays an act of contrition and the priest administers absolution, formally forgiving the person of his sins. The priest is forbidden—under penalty of excommunication—to reveal any sin or disclosure heard under the seal of confession. Penance helps prepare Catholics before they can licitly receive the sacraments of Confirmation and the Eucharist.
Holy Spirit and Confirmation
Jesus told his apostles that after his death and resurrection he would send them the "Advocate", the "Holy Spirit", who "... will teach you all things".Through the sacrament of Confirmation, Catholics believe they receive the Holy Spirit. Since the Holy Spirit is a Person of the Trinity, the Church teaches that receiving the Holy Spirit is an act of receiving God. Confirmation, sometimes called the "sacrament of Christian maturity", is believed to increase and deepen the grace received at Baptism, as the confirmand is sealed with the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, i.e., wisdom (to see and follow God's plan), understanding, counsel (right judgement), fortitude (courage), knowledge, piety (reverence), and fear of the Lord (rejoicing in the presence of God; a spirit of holy fear in God's presence). The corresponding fruits of the Holy Spirit are charity (love), joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, and chastity. To be properly confirmed, Catholics must be in a state of grace, which means they cannot be conscious of having committed an unconfessed mortal sin. They must also have prepared spiritually for the sacrament, chosen a sponsor for spiritual support, and selected a saint to be their special patron and intercessor. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, baptism, including infant baptism, is immediately followed by Confirmation and the reception of the Eucharist.
Final judgment and afterlife
Belief in an afterlife is part of Catholic doctrine, the "four last things" being death, judgment, heaven, and hell. The Church teaches that immediately after death the soul of each person will receive a particular judgment from God, based on the deeds of that individual's earthly life. This teaching also attests to another day when Jesus will sit in a universal judgment of all mankind. This final judgment, according to Church teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness. The basis upon which each person's soul will be judged is detailed in the Gospel of Matthew which lists works of mercy to be performed even to people considered "the least".Emphasis is upon Jesus' words that "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven".According to the Catechism, "The Last Judgement will reveal even to its furthest consequences the good each person has done or failed to do during his earthly life."



Catholic sex abuse cases
The Catholic sex abuse cases are an ongoing series of scandals and accusations that erupted at the end of the twentieth century.{fact} In 2001 Major lawsuits emerged primarily in the United States and Europe, claiming that some priests had sexually abused minors. In the U.S., the country with the majority of sex-abuse cases, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops commissioned a comprehensive study that found that four percent of all priests who served in the U.S. from 1950 to 2002 faced some sort of sexual accusation. The Church was widely criticized when it emerged that some bishops had known about abuse allegations, failed to report them to police and reassigned accused priests after first sending them to psychiatric counseling. Some bishops and psychiatrists contended that the prevailing psychology of the times suggested that people could be cured of such behavior through counseling. Pope John Paul II declared that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young".Some commentators have argued that media coverage of the issue has been excessive given that abuse occurs in other institutions, a point also made in a September 2009 speech by Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi. The U.S. Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse including requiring background checks for Church employees and volunteers; and, because the vast majority of victims were teenage boys
Progressive discovery of the problem
The issue of sexual abuse by Catholic priests rose to US national attention in 1985 when Gilbert Gauthe plead guilty to 11 counts of molestation of boys. In the 1990s, the issue was again brought to the national attention when a number of books on the topic were published. However, it was not until early 2002 that the Boston Globe coverage of a series of criminal prosecutions of five Roman Catholic priests thrust the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests into the national limelight on an ongoing basis. The coverage of these cases encouraged other victims to come forward with their allegations of abuse resulting in more lawsuits and criminal cases.
Ultimately, it became clear that, over several decades in the 20th century, some priests and lay members of religious orders in the Catholic Church had sexually abused minors (those under 18) on a scale such that the accusations eventually reached into the thousands. Although the majority of cases were reported to have occurred in the United States, victims have come forward in other nations such as Ireland, Canada and Australia. A major aggravating factor was the actions of Catholic bishops in responding to allegations of clerical abuse. It was revealed that some bishops had facilitated compensation payments to alleged victims on condition that the allegations remained secret. In addition, rather than being dismissed, the accused were often instructed to undergo psychological counseling and, on completion of counseling, reassigned to other parishes where, in some cases, they continued to abuse minors.
In response to these allegations, both ecclesiastical and civil authorities have implemented procedures to prevent sexual abuse of minors by clergy and to report and punish it if and when it occurs.
Awareness of the problem
Some date the current sexual abuse scandal to an article published in the National Catholic Reporter in 1985. The topic became the focus of intense scrutiny and debate after the Boston Globe published a series of articles covering cases of sexual abuse.
Global extent
Approximately 80% of the priests involved in sexual abuse of minors were located in the United States.(4,392 priests, as Church's estimate that no more than 5,000 priests worldwide) Although allegations of clergy sexual abuse have surfaced in several countries around the world, there have been no comprehensive studies which compare the relative incidence of sexual abuse in different areas. However, there is a general perception that the issue has been most prominent in the United States, and then in Australia, Canada and Ireland.
Number of allegations
The number of alleged abuses increased in the 1960s, peaked in the 1970s, declined in the 1980s and by the 1990s had returned to the levels of the 1950s.
Of the 11,000 allegations reported by bishops in the John Jay study, 3300 were not investigated because the allegations were made after the accused priest had died. 6700 allegations were substantiated, leaving 1000 which could not be substantiated.
According to the John Jay report, one-third of the accusations were made in the years 2002-3. Another third of the allegations were reported between 1993 and 2001.
Profile of the victims
An overwhelming majority of the victims, 81 percent, were males. A majority of the victims were post-pubescent adolescents with a small percentage of the priests accused of abusing children who had not reached puberty.
The John Jay Report determined that just under 6% of victims were 7 years of age or younger. 16% of the victims were between age 8 and age 10.
Some sources have asserted that most of the victims were between the ages of 16 and 17, making the sexual abuse instances of hebephilia rather than pedophilia. These sources argue that, by failing to make this distinction, the media has fostered a misconception of the problem. The vast majority of the victims (78%) were between age 11 and age 17. Only 15% of the victims were 16 to 17 years of age; 51% were between the ages of 11 and 14.
Profile of the abusers
Half the priests were 35 years of age or younger at the time of the first instance of alleged abuse. Fewer than 7% of the priests were reported to have experienced physical, sexual or emotional abuse as children. Although 19% of the accused priests had alcohol or substance abuse problems, only 9% used drugs or alcohol during the alleged instances of abuse. Almost 70% of the abusive priests were ordained before 1970, after attending pre-Vatican II seminaries or seminaries that had had little time to adapt to the reforms of Vatican II.
Of the priests who were accused of sexual abuse, 59% were accused of a single allegation. 41% of the priests were the subject of more than one allegation. Just under 3% of the priests were the subject of ten or more allegations. The 149 priests who had more than 10 allegations against them accounted for 2,960 of the total number of allegations.
Response of the Church
The Catholic Church responded to the scandal at three levels: the diocesan level, the episcopal conference level and the Vatican. Responses to the scandal proceeded at all three levels in parallel with the higher levels becoming progressively more involved as the gravity of the problem became more apparent.
Before the Boston Globe coverage of the sexual abuse scandal in the Boston archdiocese, handling of sexual abuse allegations was largely left up to the discretion of individual bishops. After the number of allegations exploded following the Globe's series of articles, U.S. bishops felt compelled to formulate a coordinated response at the episcopal conference level.
Although the Vatican did not respond immediately to the series of articles published by the Boston Globe in 2002, it has been reported that Vatican officials were, in fact, monitoring the situation in the U.S. closely. Over time, it became more apparent that the problem warranted greater Vatican involvement.
Diocesan responses to the problem
Section: #Resignations, retirements and defrockings
For the most part, responding to allegations of sexual abuse in a diocese was left to the jurisdiction of the bishop or archbishop. Many of the accused priests were forced to resign or were defrocked. In addition, several bishops who had participated in the cover-up were also forced to resign or retire.
The dioceses in which abuse was committed or in which abuse allegations were settled out of court found it necessary to make financial settlements with the victims totaling over $1.5 billion as of March 2006. The number and size of these settlements made it necessary for the dioceses to reduce their ordinary operating expenses by closing churches and schools. Several dioceses chose to declare chapter 11 bankruptcy as a way to litigate settlements while protecting some church assets to insure it continues to operate.
Initial response of the Vatican
On April 30, 2001, John Paul II, issued a letter stating that "a sin against the Sixth Commandment of the Decalogue by a cleric with a minor under 18 years of age is to be considered a grave sin, or 'delictum gravius.'"
John F. Allen Jr., Vatican correspondent for the National Catholic Reporter, has commented that many American Catholics saw the Vatican’s initial silence on the Boston Globe stories as showing a lack of concern or awareness about the issue. However, Allen said that, he doesn't know anyone in the Roman Curia, who was not, in the least, horrified "by the revelations that came out of the Globe and elsewhere" or "would defend Cardinal Law’s handling of the cases in Boston" or "would defend the rather shocking lack of oversight that revealed itself" though "they might have different analyses of what should have happened to him".Allen described the Vatican's perspective as being somewhat skeptical of the media handling of the scandal. In addition, he asserted that the Vatican viewed American cultural attitudes toward sexuality as being somewhat hysterical as well as exhibiting a lack of understanding of the Catholic Church.
No one [in the Vatican] thinks the sexual abuse of kids is unique to the States, but they do think that the reporting on it is uniquely American, fueled by anti-Catholicism and shyster lawyers hustling to tap the deep pockets of the church. And that thinking is tied to the larger perception about American culture, which is that there is a hysteria when it comes to anything sexual, and an incomprehension of the Catholic Church. What that means is that Vatican officials are slower to make the kinds of public statements that most American Catholics want, and when they do make them they are tentative and halfhearted. It's not that they don't feel bad for the victims, but they think the clamor for them to apologize is fed by other factors that they don't want to capitulate to.
Relations between the Vatican and American Catholics
According to John Allen Jr., Vatican correspondent for the National Catholic Reporter, cultural differences between the Vatican and American Catholics complicated the process of formulating a comprehensive response to the sexual abuse scandal. Allen asserted that the sexual abuse crisis illustrated that "there is a lot about the American culture and the American Church that puzzles people in the Vatican, and there is much about the Vatican that puzzles Americans and English speakers generally."
Response of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops
As the breadth and depth of the scandals became apparent in dioceses across the United States, it became apparent to the American bishops that a joint response was warranted at the episcopal conference level. John F. Allen Jr. characterized the reaction of the USCCB as calling for “swift, sure and final punishment for priests who are guilty of this kind of misconduct.” In contrast to this, Allen characterized the Vatican's primary concern as wanting to make sure “that everyone’s rights are respected, including the rights of accused clergy" and wanting to affirm that it is not acceptable to "remedy the injustice of sexual abuse with the injustice of railroading priests who may or may not be guilty.”
In June 2002, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) unanimously approved a Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People that pledged the Catholic Church in the U.S. to providing a "safe environment" for all children in Church-sponsored activities The thrust of the charter was the adoption of a "zero tolerance" policy for sexual abuse. The USCCB instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees. They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.
A study conducted by Georgetown University Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA) in 2006 found that, although many Catholics are unaware of the specific steps that the church as taken, when informed of them, large majorities approve these actions. 78% strongly approved of reporting allegations of sexual abuse by clergy to civil authorities and cooperating in civil investigations. 76% strongly approved of removing from ministry people credibly accused of sexual abuse of a minor.
While the Church in the United States claims to have addressed the issue, some disagree. In 2005, Dr. Kathleen McChesney of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops said that the crisis was not yet over because hundreds of victims across the country were still reporting past episodes of abuse. She said: "In 2004, at least 1,092 allegations of sexual abuse were made against at least 756 Catholic priests and deacons in the United States. Most of the alleged incidents occurred between 1965 and 1974. What is over is the denial that this problem exists, and what is over is the reluctance of the Church to deal openly with the public about the nature and extent of the problem."
John Jay study
In June 2002 the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops met in Dallas and approved the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People. The Charter created a National Review Board, which was assigned responsibility to commission a descriptive study, with the full cooperation of the dioceses/eparchies, of the nature and scope of the problem of sexual abuse of minors by clergy. The National Review Board engaged the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York to conduct a study analyzing allegations of sexual abuse in Catholic dioceses in United States. The time period covered by the John Jay study began in 1950 and ended in 2002. The product of the study was a report to the National Review Board titled "The Nature and Scope of the Problem of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States" and commonly referred to as the "John Jay Report".
Prevalence of the problem
The John Jay report indicated that some 11,000 allegations had been made against 4,392 priests in the USA. This number constituted approximately 4% of the 110,000 priests who had served during the period covered by the survey (1950-2002).[39] The report found that, over the 52-year period covered by the study, "the problem was indeed widespread and affected more than 95% of the dioceses and approximately 60% of religious communities."
In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem but, at the same time, estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' (or 5,000) of the over 500,000 Roman Catholic priests worldwide.[citation needed]
2003 Vatican Conference on Sexual Abuse
In April 2003, the Pontifical Academy for Life organized a three-day conference, entitled "Abuse of Children and Young People by Catholic Priests and Religious", where eight non-Catholic psychiatric experts were invited to speak to near all Vatican dicasteries' representatives. The panel of experts identified the following factors contributing to the sexual abuse problem:
• Failure by the hierarchy to grasp the seriousness of the problem.
• Overemphasis on the need to avoid a scandal.
• Use of unqualified treatment centers.
• Misguided willingness to forgive.
• Insufficient accountability.
Diocesan awareness of the problem
In response to criticism that the Catholic hierarchy should have acted more quickly and decisively to remove, laicise and report priests accused of sexual misconduct, contemporary bishops have responded that the hierarchy was unaware until recent years of the danger in shuffling priests from one parish to another and in concealing the priests' problems from those they served. For example, Cardinal Roger Mahony of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, said: "We have said repeatedly that ... our understanding of this problem and the way it's dealt with today evolved, and that in those years ago, decades ago, people didn't realize how serious this was, and so, rather than pulling people out of ministry directly and fully, they were moved."
Diocesan response to allegations of sexual abuse
Some bishops have been heavily criticized for moving offending priests from parish to parish, where they still had personal contact with children, rather than seeking to have them permanently removed from the priesthood by defrocking. The Church was widely criticized when it was discovered that some bishops knew about some of the alleged crimes committed, but reassigned the accused instead of seeking to have them permanently removed from the priesthood. For example, John Geoghan was shifted from one parish to another although Cardinal Bernard Law had been informed of Geoghan's sexual misconduct on a number of occasions.
Similar to this practice, some have pointed out that public school administrators engaged in a likewise manner when dealing with accused teachers ,as did the Boy Scouts of America.
Instead of reporting the incidents to police, many dioceses directed the offending priests to seek psychological treatment and assessment. According to the John Jay report, nearly 40% of priests alleged to have committed sexual abuse participated in treatment programs. The more allegations a priest had, the more likely he was to participate in treatment.From a legal perspective, the most serious criticism aside from the incidents of child sexual abuse themselves was by the bishops, who failed to report accusations to the police. In response to the failure to report abuse to the police, lawmakers have changed the law to make reporting of abuse to police compulsory. In 2002, Massachusetts passed a law requiring religious officials to report the abuse of children.
In response to these allegations, defenders of the Church's actions have suggested that in re-assigning priests after treatment, bishops were acting on the best medical advice then available, a policy also followed by the US public school system when dealing with accused teachers. Some bishops and psychiatrists have asserted that the prevailing psychology of the times suggested that people could be cured of such behavior through counseling. Many of the abusive priests had received counseling before being reassigned. Critics have questioned whether bishops are necessarily able to form accurate judgments on a priest's recovery.[citation needed] The priests were allowed to resume their previous duties with children only when the bishop was advised by the treating psychologists or psychiatrists that it was safe for them to resume their duties.[citation needed]
According to the John Jay study, 3% of all priests against whom allegations were made were convicted and about 2% received prison sentences."
UN human rights council in Geneva
In a statement, read out by Archbishop Silvano Maria Tomasi at a meeting of the UN human rights council in Geneva on 22 September 2009, the Holy See stated that the majority of Catholic clergy who had committed acts of sexual abuse against under 18 year olds should not be viewed as paedophiles but homosexuals who are attracted to sex with adolescent males.
The statement said that rather than pedophilia, it would "be more correct" to speak of ephebophilia; being a homosexual attraction to adolescent males ....... "Of all priests involved in the abuses, 80 to 90% belong to this sexual orientation minority which is sexually engaged with adolescent boys between the ages of 11 and 17."
The move angered many gay rights organisations, who claimed it was an attempt by the Vatican to redefine the Church's past problems with pedophilia as problems with homosexuality.
Media coverage and public opinion
Differing perspectives and misconceptions contributed to negative public opinion in the U.S. towards the what was perceived as the failure of the Catholic hierarchy to respond adequately to allegations of sexual abuse and the seemingly sluggish response of the Vatican to the unfolding scandal. Some sources argue that the negative public opinion was fueled in part by statements made to the media by various parties with differing agendas including lawyers for those suing the Church for damages resulting the alleged sexual abuse. As the public furor over the scandal grew, some members of the Catholic Church began to see an anti-Catholic agenda behind some of these pronouncements.
Criticism of media coverage by Catholics and others centred on an excessive focus being placed on Catholic incidences of abuse. Such voices argue that equal or greater levels of child sexual abuse in other religious groups or in secular contexts such as the US public school system have been either ignored or given minimal coverage by mainstream media. Commentator Tom Hoopes wrote:
during the first half of 2002, the 61 largest newspapers in California ran nearly 2,000 stories about sexual abuse in Catholic institutions, mostly concerning past allegations. During the same period, those newspapers ran four stories about the federal government’s discovery of the much larger — and ongoing — abuse scandal in public schools.
Anglican writer Philip Jenkins supported many of these arguments stating that media coverage of the abuse story had become "..a gross efflorescence of anti-catholic rhetoric."
Response of the Vatican
In 2003, Pope John Paul II stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young".
In addition, Pope Benedict XVI has apologized for the sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy and pledged that pedophiles would not be allowed to become priests in the Catholic Church.
New rules regarding ordination
Because a significant majority of victims were teenage boys, the Vatican instituted reforms to prevent future United States abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees and issued new rules disallowing ordination of men with "deep–seated homosexual tendencies".They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.
Crimen Sollicitationis controversy
In 2003, a 1962 document was discovered in the Vatican's archives, titled "Crimen sollicitationis" (Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation) written by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, the Secretary of the Holy Office, issued an instruction regarding the disciplinary procedures for dealing with solicitation of penitents for sex by priests during the Sacrament of Penance. The document dealt with any priest who "tempts a penitent... in the act of sacramental confession... towards impure or obscene matters." It directed that investigation of allegations of solicitation in the confessional and the trials of accused priests be conducted in secrecy.
Some parties interpreted the document to be a directive from the Vatican to keep all allegations of sexual abuse secret, leading to widespread media coverage of its contents. Lawyers for some of those making abuse allegations claimed that the document demonstrated a systematic conspiracy to conceal such crimes. The Vatican responded that the document was not only widely misinterpreted, but moreover had been superseded by more recent guidelines in the 1960s and 1970s, and especially the 1983 Code of Canon Law.
Sex abuse cases by country
Argentina
Julio Grassi was found guilty (by a three-judge panel of the Criminal Court Oral 1 Morón) of one count of sexual abuse and one count of corrupting a minor in the “Happy Children’s Foundation” and sentenced to 15 years in prison as the third member of the Roman Catholic Church in Argentina to be convicted of sexually abusing minors. Prosecutors said they were considering an appeal on behalf of the two plaintiffs whose sexual abuse accusations were dropped. Father Grassi maintained his plea of innocence of the charge and promised to appeal.
Australia
Main: Catholic sexual abuse in Australia and Sexual abuse in archdiocese of Melbourne
Pope Benedict's apology
On July 19, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI made a historic full apology for child sex abuse by priests and clergymen in Australia. Before a 3,400 congregation assembled in Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedral, In Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedral, Pope Benedict called for compensation and demanded punishment for those guilty of the "evil":
"Here I would like to pause to acknowledge the shame which we have all felt as a result of the sexual abuse of minors by some clergy and religious in this country. I am deeply sorry for the pain and suffering the victims have endured and I assure them that, as their pastor, I too share in their suffering. ... Victims should receive compassion and care, and those responsible for these evils must be brought to justice. These misdeeds, which constitute so grave a betrayal of trust, deserve unequivocal condemnation. I ask all of you to support and assist your bishops, and to work together with them in combating this evil. It is an urgent priority to promote a safer and more wholesome environment, especially for young people."
On July 21, he met with two male and two female victims of sex abuse by priests, listened to their stories and celebrated Mass with them. The Premier of New South Wales Morris Iemma said "Hopefully it will be a sign of righting the wrongs of the past and of a better future and better treatment by the church of the victims and their families." The victims' rights advocacy group Broken Rites welcomed the Pope's apology, but expressed disappointment that the Pope had not made his apology directly to sexual abuse victims and criticized the selection of the victims as having been hand-picked to be cooperative.
"I'm afraid that what they've done is selected victims who have agreed with what the Church's policies are. The Pope should have met with Anthony Foster, the father of two girls abused by a priest, who cut short a holiday in Britain to return to Australia in the hope of meeting the pontiff."
Austria
Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër resigned from his post as Archbishop of Vienna over allegations of sexual abuse in 1995.
Canada
Main article: Catholic sexual abuse scandal in Canada
In 1988, there were allegations of widespread abuse of children at the Mount Cashel Orphanage in Newfoundland. The religious order that ran the orphanage filed for bankruptcy in the face of numerous lawsuits. Since the Mount Cashel scandal erupted, a number of priests across the country have been accused of sexual abuse. In 1992, the Canadian Catholic bishops unveiled tough guidelines - calling for "responding fairly and openly" to all allegations, stressing the need to "respect" the jurisdiction of outside authorities, and recommending counselling and compassion for the victims.
In February 2009, the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador ruled that the Roman Catholic Church in St. John’s was responsible ("vicariously liable") for the sexual abuse of eight former altar boys by disgraced priest, Reverend James Hickey.[71]
The Christian Brothers have paid out approximately $35 million (Canadian) in compensation.
Ireland
Main article: Catholic sexual abuse scandal in Ireland
One of the best known cases of sex abuse in Ireland involved Brendan Smyth, who, between 1945 and 1989, sexually abused and indecently assaulted twenty children in parishes in Belfast, Dublin and the United States. The investigation of the Smyth case was allegedly obstructed by the Norbertine Order.
Ferns Report
Main article: Ferns Report
The Ferns Inquiry (2005) was an official Irish government inquiry into the allegations of clerical sexual abuse in the Irish Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns. The Inquiry recorded its revulsion at the extent, severity and duration of the child sexual abuse allegedly perpetrated on children by priests acting under the aegis of the Diocese of Ferns.The investigation was established in the wake of the broadcast of a BBC Television documentary "Suing the Pope", which highlighted the case of Seán Fortune, one of the most notorious clerical sexual offenders. O'Gorman, through One in Four, the organization he founded to support women and men who have experienced sexual violence, successfully campaigned for the Ferns Inquiry.
Irish Child Abuse Commission 2009
Main article: Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse
A lengthy report detailing cases of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of hundreds of children over 70 years was published on 20 May 2009. Ireland's national police force announced that they would study the report to see if it provided any new evidence for prosecuting clerics for assault, rape or other criminal offenses. The report, however, did not identify any of the alleged abusers by name because of a right-to-privacy lawsuit by the Christian Brothers order. Dublin Archbishop Diarmuid Martin slammed Irish Catholic orders for concealing their culpability in decades of child abuse and asserted that much more money would be needed to compensate victims.
"Ashamed by the extent, length, and cruelty" of child abuse, Ireland's Prime Minister Brian Cowen apologized to victims for the government's failure to intervene in endemic sexual abuse and severe beatings in schools for much of the 20th century. He also promised to reform the Ireland's social services for children in line with the recommendations of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse report.
Further motions to start criminal investigation against members of Roman Catholic religious orders in Ireland were made by Irish President Mary McAleese and Prime Minister Cowen.
Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin
In November 2009, an independent report commissioned by the Irish government investigated the way in which the church dealt with allegations of sexual abuse of children by priests over the period 1975 to 2004. It concluded that "the Dublin Archdiocese‟s pre-occupations in dealing with cases of child sexual abuse, at least until the mid 1990s, were the maintenance of secrecy, the avoidance of scandal, the protection of the reputation of the Church, and the preservation of its assets. All other considerations, including the welfare of children and justice for victims, were subordinated to these priorities. The Archdiocese did not implement its own canon law rules and did its best to avoid any application of the law of the State".
United States
For details on sexual abuse scandals in specific dioceses, see: Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Orange, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Portland
Public discourse on sexual abuse in the United States had been muted until the 1990s when a series of books on the topic was published. Even then, it was not until early 2002 that the Boston Globe coverage of a series of criminal prosecutions of five Roman Catholic priests thrust the issue of "sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests" into the national limelight. The coverage of these cases encouraged other victims to come forward with their allegations of abuse resulting in more lawsuits and criminal cases.
As it became clear that there was truth to many of the allegations and that there was a pattern of sexual abuse and alleged cover-up in a number of large dioceses across the USA, what had originally appeared to be a few isolated cases of abuse grew into a nationwide scandal, resulting in a crisis for the Catholic Church in the United States. The publicity may have encouraged victims in other nations to come forward with their allegations of abuse, thus appearing to spread the crisis.
Ultimately, it became clear that, over several decades in the 20th century, that some priests and lay members of religious orders in the Catholic Church had sexually abused minors (those under 18) on a scale such that the accusations reached into the thousands. Although the majority of cases were reported to have occurred in the United States, victims have come forward in other nations such as Ireland, Canada and Australia. A major aggravating factor was the actions of Catholic bishops to keep these allegations secret and to reassign the accused to other parishes in positions where they often had continued unsupervised contact with youth, allowing them opportunities to continue abusing minors.
Many of the accused priests and several bishops who had participated in the alleged cover-up were forced to resign or were defrocked. Several dioceses made financial settlements with the victims totaling over 1 billion dollars, which had a significant impact on their finances, resulting closure of schools and parishes for many of them to raise the funds to make payments.
Guido's study
Rev. Joseph J. Guido, a psychology professor at Providence College, surveyed superiors of a Catholic religious order and found that 83% of the North American superiors reported being aware of an accusation of sexual abuse against one or more of their priests. In contrast, 43% of superiors in America and the Caribbean reported being aware of such an accusation. Only one-third of the superiors in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. In America magazine, a Jesuit weekly, Guido wrote that research suggests ... that the sexual abuse of children is a problem for the church everywhere." However, he wrote that, outside North America, the religious order superiors were more likely to be aware of sexual misconduct by priests with adults, rather than with minors.[clarification needed]
John Jay Report
In 2004, The John Jay Report commissioned by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops was based on surveys completed by the Roman Catholic dioceses in the United States. The Report determined that, during the period from 1950-2002, a total of 10,667 individuals had made allegations of child sexual abuse. Of these, the dioceses had been able to substantiate 6,700 accusations against 4,392 priests in the USA, about 4% of all 109,694 priests who served during the time period covered by the study. The number of alleged abuses increased in the 1960s, peaked in the 1970s, declined in the 1980s and by the 1990s had returned to the levels of the 1950s. The surveys filtered provided information from diocesan files on each priest accused of sexual abuse and on each of the priest's victims, to the research team so that they did not have access to the names of the accused priests or the dioceses where they worked. The dioceses were encouraged to issue reports of their own based on the surveys that they had completed. Of the 4,392 priests who were accused, police were contacted regarding 1,021 individuals and of these, 384 were charged resulting in 252 convictions and 100 prison sentences. 3,300 were not investigated because the allegations were made after the accused priest had died. Thus, 6% of all priests against whom allegations were made were convicted and about 2% received prison sentences to date. According to the John Jay report, one-third of the accusations were made in the years 2002 and 2003. Another third of the allegations were reported between 1993 and 2001.[
Legal cases and effects

William McMurry, a Louisville, Kentucky lawyer, filed suit against the Vatican] in June 2004 on behalf of three men alleging abuse as far back as 1928, accusing Church leaders of organizing a cover-up of cases of sexual abuse of children. In November, 2008, the United States Court of Appeals in Cincinnati denied the Vatican's claim of sovereign immunity and allowed the case to proceed. The Vatican did not appeal the ruling.
However, when Pope Benedict was personally accused in a lawsuit of conspiring to cover up the molestation of three boys in Texas, he sought and obtained diplomatic immunity from prosecution. Some have claimed that this immunity was granted after intervention by then US President George W. Bush. The Department of State "recognize[d] and allow[ed] the immunity of Pope Benedict XVI from this suit."
Compensation payments, bankruptcies and closures
According to Donald Cozzens, "by the end of the mid 1990s, it was estimated that ...more than half a billion dollars had been paid in jury awards, settlements and legal fees." This figure grew to about one billion dollars by 2002. Roman Catholics spent $615 million on sex abuse cases in 2007.
The multi-million dollar payouts to victims, 1 billion dollar in total, have had a significant impact on the finances of many dioceses. Many of them have had to close schools and parishes in order to raise the funds to make these payments.
At least six U.S. dioceses sought bankruptcy protection. In some cases, the dioceses filed bankruptcy just before civil suits against them were about to go to trial. This had the effect of mandating that pending and future lawsuits be settled in bankruptcy court.
Resignations, retirements and defrockings
Many of the accused priests were forced to resign or were defrocked. In addition, several bishops who had participated in the cover up were also forced to resign or retire.
Bernard Francis Law, Cardinal and Archbishop of Boston, Massachusetts, United States resigned after Church documents were revealed which suggested he had covered up sexual abuse committed by priests in his archdiocese. December 13, 2002 Pope John Paul II accepted Law's resignation as Archbishop and reassigned him to an administrative position in the Roman Curia naming him archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore and he presided at one of the Pope's funeral masses. Law's successor, Bishop Séan P. O'Malley found it necessary to sell substantial real estate properties and close a number of churches in order to pay the $120 million in claims against the archdiocese.
Two bishops of Palm Beach, Florida, resigned due to child abuse allegations, resigned bishop Joseph Keith Symons was replaced by Anthony O'Connell, who later also resigned in 2002.
Prevention efforts
In 2002, the U.S. church claimed to adopt a "zero tolerance" policy for sexual abuse.
By 2008, the U.S. church had trained 5.8 million children to recognize and report abuse. It had run criminal checks on 1.53 million volunteers and employees, 162,700 educators, 51,000 clerics and 4,955 candidates for ordination. It had trained 1.8 million clergy, employees and volunteers in creating a safe environment for children.
Response of Pope Benedict
During a recent visit to the United States Pope Benedict admitted that he is "deeply ashamed" of the clergy sex abuse scandal that has devastated the American church. Benedict pledged that pedophiles would not be priests in the Roman Catholic Church.
Catholic sex abuse cases by orders
Main article: Abuse by priests in Roman Catholic orders
As distinct from abuse by some parish priests, under diocesan control, there have also been sexual abuse cases concerning those in Roman Catholic orders, which often care for the sick or teach school.
Debate over the causes of the sexual abuse
Seminary training
Clergy themselves have suggested their seminary training offered little to prepare them for a lifetime of celibate sexuality. Rome's Congregation for Catholic Education issued an official document, the Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders (2005). The document has attracted criticism based on an interpretation that the document implies that homosexuality leads to pedophilia.
Declining standards explanation
In the book, The Courage To Be Catholic: Crisis, Reform, and the Future of the Church, George Weigel holds that it was the infidelity to orthodox Roman Catholic teaching, the "culture of dissent", which was mainly responsible for this problem. By "culture of dissent" he meant priests, women religious, bishops, theologians, catechists, Church bureaucrats, and activists who "believed that what the Church proposed as true was actually false."
Ultra-conservative Roman Catholics have made the charge that the Second Vatican Council itself (1962–1965) fostered a climate that encouraged priests to abuse children.[citation needed] The council essentially directed an opening of the doors to meet the world. However traditional Roman Catholics believe that this led to a conversion of Roman Catholics to secularism rather than vice versa.[citation needed] In the January 27, 2003 edition of Time magazine, actor and ultra-conservative Roman Catholic Mel Gibson charged that "...Vatican II corrupted the institution of the church. Look at the main fruits: dwindling numbers and pedophilia." Others respond that abuse by priests was occurring long before the start of Vatican II and that many of the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases did not, strictly speaking, involve pedophilia.
Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick, retired Archbishop of Washington, blamed the declining morals of the late 20th century as a cause of the high number of sexually abusive priests. Other assert that the increased reporting of abuse in child-care institutions during this time was concomitant with rising police interest, investigation and prosecution of such crimes. As such it is not certain that a sudden "crisis of abuse" ever existed, instead the dramatic increase in reported abuse cases may simply have heralded the end of a long-term endemic problem found throughout a number of institutions, both secular and religious, prior to the introduction of quality control measures specifically aimed at preventing such abuses from occurring.[citation needed]
Philip Jenkins claims that the Roman Catholic Church is being unfairly singled out by a secular media which he claims fails to highlight similar sexual accusations in other religious groups, such as the Anglican Communion, Islam and Judaism, and various Protestant churches, communities. Jenkins later authored the book The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice in 2003, touching on some of the same issues. Similar experiences are described in e.g. scouting sex abuse cases and Jehovah's Witnesses and child sex abuse.
Supply and demand explanation
It has been argued that the shortage of priests in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. caused the Roman Catholic hierarchy to act in such a way to preserve the number of clergy and ensure that sufficient numbers were available to serve the congregation despite serious allegations that these priests were unfit for duty.[citation needed]
Others disagree and assert that the Church hierarchy's mishandling of the sex abuse cases merely reflected their prevailing attitude at the time towards any illegal or immoral activity by clergy.
Celibacy explanation
A 2005 article in the Western People, a conservative Irish newspaper proposed that clerical celibacy contributed to the abuse problem by suggesting that the institution of celibacy has created a "morally superior" status that is easily misapplied by abusive priests. According to this paper, "The Irish Church’s prospect of a recovery is zero for as long as bishops continue blindly to toe the Vatican line of Pope Benedict XVI that a male celibate priesthood is morally superior to other sections of society."
Sexual scandals among priests, the defenders say, are a breach of the Church's discipline, not a result of it, especially since only a small percentage of priests have been implicated. Furthermore there is no data supporting a higher rate of child-oriented sexual activity among the unmarried Roman Catholic clergy than that of the married clergy of other denominations and of schoolteachers. However, for those cases for which data is available, molestation of pre-pubescent children was found to be rare.Consequently opinion remains divided on whether there is any definite link or connection between the Roman Catholic institution of celibacy and incidences of child abuse by Catholic clergy.
Advocacy for mandatory celibacy
Philip Jenkins asserts that his "research of cases over the past 20 years indicates no evidence whatever that Catholic or other celibate clergy are any more likely to be involved in misconduct or abuse than clergy of any other denomination—or indeed, than non-clergy. However determined news media may be to see this affair as a crisis of celibacy, the charge is just unsupported." Both supporters and many detractors of clerical celibacy state that Roman Catholic priests suffering sexual temptations are not likely to turn immediately to children simply because Church discipline does not permit clergy to marry.
Abuse in literature and films
Publications
A number of books have been written, see List of books portraying pedophilia or sexual abuse of minors, about the abuse suffered from priests and nuns including Andrew Madden in Altar Boy: A Story of Life After Abuse, Carolyn Lehman's Strong at the Heart: How it feels to heal from sexual abuse and the bestselling Kathy's Story by Kathy O'Beirne which details physical and sexual abuse suffered in a Magdalene laundry in Ireland. Ed West from Daily Telegraph, claimed Kathy Beirne's story is "largely invented" according to book of Hermann Kelly, who is a Derry born journalist of Irish Daily Mail and former editor of the Irish Catholic, titled Kathy's Real Story from Prefect Press.
Films
The Magdalene laundries caught the public's attention in the late 1990s as revelations of widespread abuse from former inmates gathered momentum and were made the subject an award-winning film called The Magdalene Sisters (2002). In 2006, a documentary called Deliver Us From Evil was made about the sex abuse cases and one priest's confession of abuse.
Several other films have been made about sex abuse within the Church, including:
• Doubt (2008), based on the eponymous play
• Hand of God (2006), documentary filmed for Frontline]
• Sex Crimes and the Vatican (2006), documentary filmed for the BBC Panorama Documentary Series that purports to show how the Vatican has used Crimen sollicitationis to silence allegations of sexual abuse by priests.
• Our Fathers (2005), a Showtime movie based on the book by David France
• Twist of Faith (2004), an HBO film
• The Boys of St. Vincent (1992)
Christianity
Christianity (from the Greek word Xριστός, Khristos, "Christ", literally "anointed one") is a monotheistic religion[1] based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament.[2]
Christians believe Jesus is the son of God, God having become man and the savior of humanity. Christians, therefore, commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah.[3]
Adherents of the Christian faith, known as Christians,[4] believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (the part of scripture common to Christianity and Judaism). The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds, which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith.[5] These professions state that Jesus suffered, died from crucifixion, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead to open heaven to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation).[6] They further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God.[7] Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news") and hence refer to the earliest written accounts of his ministry as gospels.
Christianity began as a Jewish sect[8][9] and is classified as an Abrahamic religion.[10][11][12] Originating in the eastern Mediterranean, it quickly grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire.
During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a (sometimes large) religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of India.[13] Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, and the rest of the world, therefore Christianity is a major influence in the shaping of Western civilization.
As of the early 21st century, Christianity has between 1.5 billion[14][15] and 2.1 billion adherents.[16] Christianity represents about a quarter to a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion.[17] In addition, Christianity is the state religion of several countries.[18]
Beliefs
Though there are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible on which Christianity is based, Christians share a set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith.[19]
Creeds
Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulae and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles Creed (Symbolum Apostolorum) was developed between the second and ninth centuries. It is the most popular creed used in worship by Western Christians. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.[20] Since the Apostles Creed is still unaffected by the later Christological divisions, its statement of the articles of Christian faith remain largely acceptable to most Christian denominations:
• belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit
• the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ
• the holiness of the Church and the communion of saints
• Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful.
The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively[21][22] and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.[23]
The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451,[24] though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches,[25] taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.[26]
The Athanasian Creed, received in the western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."[27]
Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.[28]
Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements faith, even while agreeing with some creeds' substance. The Baptists have been non-creedal “in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another.” [29]:p.111 Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the Churches of Christ.[30][31]:14-15[32]:123
Jesus Christ

The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word "Christ".[7]
Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst of everyday life. Hindus can engage in pūjā (worship or veneration),[45] either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen form(s) of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory,[67] and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons (murtis). The icon serves as a tangible link between the worshiper and God.[68] The image is often considered a manifestation of God, since God is immanent. The Padma Purana states that the mūrti is not to be thought of as mere stone or wood but as a manifest form of the Divinity.[69] A few Hindu sects, such as the Ārya Samāj, do not believe in worshiping God through icons.
Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Parabrahman) and the Swastika sign (which symbolizes auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as tilaka identify a follower of the faith. Hinduism associates many symbols, which include the lotus, chakra and veena, with particular deities.
Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities. Many devotees perform morning ablutions at the bank of a sacred river while chanting the Gayatri Mantra or Mahamrityunjaya mantras.[citation needed] The epic Mahabharata extols Japa (ritualistic chanting) as the greatest duty in the Kali Yuga (what Hindus believe to be the current age).[citation needed] Many adopt Japa as their primary spiritual practice.[citation needed]
Rituals
The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis.[70] Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home.[71] but observation of rituals greatly vary among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping at the dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, meditation, chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc.[71] A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralised before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action.[71] Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world.[71] Vedic rites of fire-oblation (yajna) are now only occasional practices, although they are highly revered in theory. In Hindu wedding and burial ceremonies, however, the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras are still the norm.[72] The rituals, upacharas, change with time. For instance, in the past few hundred years some rituals, such as sacred dance and music offerings in the standard Sodasa Upacharas set prescribed by the Agama Shastra, were replaced by the offerings of rice and sweets.
Occasions like birth, marriage, and death involve what are often elaborate sets of religious customs. In Hinduism, life-cycle rituals include Annaprashan (a baby's first intake of solid food), Upanayanam ("sacred thread ceremony" undergone by upper-caste children at their initiation into formal education) and Śrāddha (ritual of treating people to feasts in the name of the deceased).[73][74] For most people in India, the betrothal of the young couple and the exact date and time of the wedding are matters decided by the parents in consultation with astrologers.[73] On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except sanyasis, hijra, and children under five[75]. Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre.
Pilgrimage and festivals
Naradeya Purana describes the mechanics of the cosmos. Depicted here are Vishnu with his consort Lakshmi resting on Shesha Nag. Narada and Brahma are also pictured.
Hindu texts other than the Shrutis are collectively called the Smritis (memory). The most notable of the smritis are the epics, which consist of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa. The Bhagavad Gītā is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains philosophical teachings from Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu, told to the prince Arjuna on the eve of a great war. The Bhagavad Gītā, spoken by Krishna, is described as the essence of the Vedas.[89] However Gita, sometimes called Gitopanishad, is more often placed in the Shruti, category, being Upanishadic in content.[90] The Smritis also include the Purāṇas, which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives. There are texts with a sectarian nature such as Devī Mahātmya, the Tantras, the Yoga Sutras, Tirumantiram, Shiva Sutras and the Hindu Āgamas. A more controversial text, the Manusmriti, is a prescriptive lawbook which epitomizes the societal codes of the caste system.[citation needed
History

Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination.[102] However, academics categorize contemporary Hinduism into four major denominations: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god.
Vaishnavas worship Vishnu as the supreme God; Shaivites worship Shiva as the supreme; Shaktas worship Shakti (power) personified through a female divinity or Mother Goddess, Devi; while Smartas believe in the essential oneness of five (panchadeva) or six (Shanmata, as Tamil Hindus add Skanda[103]) deities as personifications of the Supreme.
The Western conception of what Hinduism is has been defined by the Smarta view; many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers.[104]
Other denominations like Ganapatya (the cult of Ganesha) and Saura (Sun worship) are not so widespread.
There are movements that are not easily placed in any of the above categories, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati's Arya Samaj, which rejects image worship and veneration of multiple deities. It focuses on the Vedas and the Vedic fire sacrifices (yajña).
The Tantric traditions have various sects, as Banerji observes:
“ Tantras are ... also divided as āstika or Vedic and nāstika or non-Vedic. In accordance with the predominance of the deity the āstika works are again divided as Śākta (Shakta), Śaiva (Shaiva), Saura, Gāṇapatya and Vaiṣṇava (Vaishnava).[105

As in every religion, some view their own denomination as superior to others. However, many Hindus consider other denominations to be legitimate alternatives to their own.[citation needed] Heresy is therefore generally not an issue for Hindus.[106]
Ashramas
Main article: Ashrama
Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āshramas (phases or stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The first part of one's life, Brahmacharya, the stage as a student, is spent in celibate, controlled, sober and pure contemplation under the guidance of a Guru, building up the mind for spiritual knowledge. Grihastha is the householder's stage, in which one marries and satisfies kāma and artha in one's married and professional life respectively (see the goals of life). The moral obligations of a Hindu householder include supporting one's parents, children, guests and holy figures. Vānaprastha, the retirement stage, is gradual detachment from the material world. This may involve giving over duties to one's children, spending more time in religious practices and embarking on holy pilgrimages. Finally, in Sannyāsa, the stage of asceticism, one renounces all worldly attachments to secludedly find the Divine through detachment from worldly life and peacefully shed the body for Moksha.[107]
Monasticism
Main article: Sannyasa
Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy, detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God.[108] A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu, or swāmi. A female renunciate is called a sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their needs.[109] It is considered a highly meritorious act for a householder to provide sādhus with food or other necessaries. Sādhus strive to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked, and to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain.[108]
Varnas
Main article: Varna in Hinduism
Hindu society has traditionally been categorized into four classes, called Varnas (Sanskrit: "colour, form, appearance"):[45]
• the Brahmins: teachers and priests;
• the Kshatriyas: warriors, nobles, and kings;
• the Vaishyas: farmers, merchants, and businessmen; and
• the Shudras: servants and labourers.
Hindus and scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is an integral part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or an outdated social custom.[110] Among the scriptures, the Shrutis do contain verses that mention the Varna system, but very sparingly and descriptively (i.e., not prescriptive). Indeed, the only verse in the Rigveda which mentions all four varnas is 10.90, the Purushasūkta. The other varnas, the Brahmā (i.e. Brahmins) and Rājanya (i.e. Kshatriyas) are mentioned separately in some other verses in the Rigveda (e.g. RV 10.80.1) and the other Vedas, and rarely in the Upanishads. Some—definitely including most Smriti texts—have interpreted these as prescribing the division of society in the four varnas. A verse from the Rig Veda indicates that a person's occupation was not necessarily determined by that of his family:
“ "I am a bard, my father is a physician, my mother's job is to grind the corn." (Rig Veda 9.112.3)[111]

In the Vedic Era, there was no prohibition against the Shudras listening to the Vedas or participating in any religious rite, as was the case in the later times.[112] Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists.[113][114]
The Smritis, having interpreted the Vedic mentions of the varnas as prescriptive, clearly sanction the division of the society into the four varnas, and also mention various sub-divisions within these varnas, which would later emerge as the present birth-based caste system.
Many social reformers, including Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar, criticized caste discrimination.[115] The religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna (1836-1886) taught that
“ "Lovers of God do not belong to any caste . . . . A brahmin without this love is no longer a brahmin. And a pariah with the love of God is no longer a pariah. Through bhakti (devotion to God) an untouchable becomes pure and elevated."[116]

Ahimsa and vegetarianism
Main articles: Ahimsa and Vegetarianism and religion
Hindus advocate the practice of ahiṃsā (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals.[117] The term ahiṃsā appears in the Upanishads,[118] the epic Mahabharata[119] and Ahiṃsā is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.[120]
In accordance with ahiṃsā, many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Vegetarianism is propagated by the Yajur Veda and it is recommended for a satvic (purifying) lifestyle.[121] Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%.[122] The food habits vary with the community and region, for example some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood.[123][124] Some Hindus avoid onion and garlic, which are regarded as rajasic foods.[125] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days.
Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure[126], and Hindu society honors the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving[127].
Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India.[128] See further discussion at Cattle in Religion and Food taboo.
Conversion
See also: List of converts to Hinduism
Concepts of conversion, evangelization, and proselytization are absent from Hindu texts and in practice have never played a significant role, though acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common. Early in its history, in the absence of other competing religions, Hindus considered everyone they came across as Hindus and expected everyone they met to be Hindus.[129][130]
Hindus today continue to be influenced by historical ideas of acceptability of conversion. Hence, many Hindus continue to believe that Hinduism is an identity that can only be had from birth, while many others continue to believe that anyone who follows Hindu beliefs and practices is a Hindu, and many believe in some form of both theories. However, as a reaction to perceived and actual threat of evangelization, prozelyzation, and conversion activities of other major religions most modern Hindus are opposed to the idea of conversion from (any) one religion to (any) other per se.[131]
Hindus in Western countries generally accept and welcome willing converts, whereas in India acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common. With the rise of Hindu revivalist movements, reconversions to Hinduism have also risen.[132] Reconversions are well accepted since conversion out of Hinduism is not recognized.[133] Conversion into Hinduism through marriage is well accepted and often expected in order to enable the non-Hindu partner to fully participate in their spiritual, religious, and cultural roles within the larger Hindu family and society.[citation needed]
There is no formal process for converting to Hinduism, although in many traditions a ritual called dīkshā ("initiation") marks the beginning of spiritual life. A ritual called shuddhi ("purification") sometimes marks the return to spiritual life after reconversion. Most Hindu sects do not seek converts,[134][135][136][137] as they believe that the goals of spiritual life can be attained through any religion, as long as it is practiced sincerely.[134][138] However, some Hindu sects and affiliates such as Arya Samaj, Saiva Siddhanta Church, BAPS, and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness accept those who have a desire to follow Hinduism.
In general, Hindu view of religious freedom is not based on the freedom to proselytize, but the right to retain one’s religion and not be subject to proselytization. Hindu leaders are advocating for changing the existing formulation of the freedom of religion clause in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since it favors religions which proselytize.
Christianity
In Christianity, there are wide ranging views on what constitutes acceptable standards of sexual conduct from today's Christian denominations. Virtually all modern Christians agree that extramarital affairs are clearly forbidden by the Bible. However, there are differing views on the interpretation of Bible passages dealing with the acceptability of homosexuality, divorce and remarriage, and premarital sex
Muslim
A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎), pronounced /ˈmʊslɪm/, is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form is Muslimah[citation needed] (Arabic: مسلمة‎). Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)". Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive.[1] Muslims believe that there is only one God, translated in Arabic as Allah. Muslims believe that Islam existed long before Muhammad and that the religion had evolved with time from the time of Adam until the time of Muhammad and was completed with the revelation of verse 3 of Surah al-Maeda:
This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.
The Qur'an describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim: Adam, Noah (Arabic: Nuh), Moses and Jesus and his apostles. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached his message and upheld his values. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we submit and obey (wa ashahadu bil-muslimūna)."
Muslims consider making ritual prayer five times a day a religious duty (fard) (see the section on Ismāˤīlīs below for exceptions); these five prayers are known as fajr, dhuhr, ˤasr, maghrib and ˤishā'. There is also a special Friday prayer called jumuˤah. Currently, the most up to date report from an American think-tank has estimated 1.57 billion Muslims populate the world, representing 23% of an estimated 2009 world population of 6.8 billion. With 60% in Asia and 20% of Muslims living in the Middle East and North Africa.[2][3][4][5]
Etymology
Main article: S-L-M
Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle[6] of the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A literal translation would be "one who wants or seeks wholeness", where "wholeness" translates islāmun. In a religious sense, Al-Islām translates to "faith, piety", and Muslim to "one who has (religious) faith or piety".
The feminine form of muslimun is muslimatun (Arabic: مسلمة‎).
Other words for Muslim
The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", pronounced /'mʊs.lɪm/ or /'mʌz.ləm/. The word is pronounced /'mʊslɪm/ in Arabic. It is sometimes transliterated "Moslem", an older, possibly Persian-based spelling, which some regard as offensive.[7]
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[8] Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.
English writers of the 19th century and earlier sometimes used the words Mussulman, Musselman, or Mussulmaun.[citation needed] Variant forms of this word are still used by many Indo-European languages. These words are similar to the Turkish, Bosnian, Kurdish, Persian, French, Russian, Spanish, Italian, Hindi and Portuguese words for "Muslim". In spite of that Polish word for Muslim almost certainly does come directly from the Turkish, it appears as if it did come directly from the Arabic, "Muzułmanin," the "ł" sound is close to either the American English "w" or to the "l" in Allah (most especially as pronounced by the Turkic peoples).
Islam
Most Muslims accept as a Muslim anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah (declaration of faith) which states,
Ash-hadu an laa ilaha illa-lah Wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah
"I bear witness there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness, Muhammad is His final messenger".
The Amman Message[9] more specifically declared that a Muslim is one who adheres to one of the eight schools of Islamic legal thought.
Currently, there are between one and two billion Muslims, making it the second largest religion in the world.[10]
Most forms of sexual contact within a marriage are allowed. Sex is considered a pleasurable, even spiritual activity, and a duty. At least one hadith explicitly states that for a married couple to have sex is a good deed rewarded by God. Another hadith suggests that a man should not leave the proverbial bed until the woman is satisfied, a reference many say points to orgasm.
Adultery warrants severe punishment.[33] Pre-marital sex is also considered sinful, albeit less severe. All shari'a laws regulating sexual conduct apply to both men and women equally, apart from those concerning menstruation. Same-sex intercourse officially carries the death penalty in several Muslim nations.[34]
Muslim and mu'min
/wiki/File:Dongxiang_minority_student.jpgMuslims are found throughout various parts of the world including the People's Republic of China
One of the verses in the Qur'an makes a distinction between a mu'min, a believer, and a Muslim:
The Arabs of the desert say, "We believe." (tu/minu) Say thou: Ye believe not; but rather say, "We profess Islam;" (aslamna) for the faith (al-imanu) hath not yet found its way into your hearts. But if ye obey [God] and His Apostle, he will not allow you to lose any of your actions: for [God] is Indulgent, Merciful ('The Koran 49:14, Rodwell).
According to the academician Carl Ernst, contemporary usage of the terms "Islam" and "Muslim" for the faith and its adherents is a modern innovation. As shown in the Quranic passage cited above, early Muslims distinguished between the Muslim, who has "submitted" and does the bare minimum required to be considered a part of the community, and the mu'min, the believer, who has given himself or herself to the faith heart and soul. Ernst writes:
"The Arabic term Islam itself was of relatively minor importance in classical theologies based on the Qur'an. If one looks at the works of theologians such as the famous al-Ghazali (d. 1111), the key term of religious identity is not Islam but iman (faith), and the one who possesses it is the mu'min (believer). Faith is one of the major topics of the Qur'an; it is mentioned hundreds of times in the sacred text. In comparison, Islam is a less common term of secondary importance; it only occurs eight times in the Qur'an. Since, however, the term Islam had a derivative meaning relating to the community of those who have submitted to God, it has taken on a new political significance, especially in recent history."[11]
For another term in Islam for a non-Muslim who is a monotheist believer (usually applied historically in a pre-Islamic context), see hanif

Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant religious tradition[1] of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is often referred to as Sanātana Dharma (a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law") by its adherents.[2] Generic "types" of Hinduism that attempt to accommodate a variety of complex views span folk and Vedic Hinduism to bhakti tradition, as in Vaishnavism. Hinduism also includes yogic traditions and a wide spectrum of "daily morality" based on the notion of karma and societal norms such as Hindu marriage customs.
Among its roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, and as such Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion"[3] or the "oldest living major tradition".[4][5][6][7] Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder.[8] Hinduism is the world's third largest religion after Christianity and Islam, with approximately one billion adherents, of whom approximately 905 million live in India.[9] Other countries with large Hindu populations can be found across southern Asia.
Hinduism's vast body of scriptures are divided into Śruti ("revealed") and Smriti ("remembered") texts. These scriptures discuss theology, philosophy and mythology, and provide information on the practice of dharma (religious living). Among these texts, the Vedas and the Upanishads are the foremost in authority, importance and antiquity. Other major scriptures include the Purāṇas and the epics Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa. The Bhagavad Gītā, a treatise from the Mahābhārata, spoken

Etymology
Further information: Names of India
Hindū is the Persian name for the Indus River, first encountered in the Old Persian word Hindu (həndu), corresponding to Vedic Sanskrit Sindhu, the Indus River.[11] The Rig Veda mentions the land of the Indo-Aryans as Sapta Sindhu (the land of the seven rivers in northwestern South Asia, one of them being the Indus). This corresponds to Hapta Həndu in the Avesta (Vendidad or Videvdad 1.18)—the sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism. The term was used for those who lived in the Indian subcontinent on or beyond the "Sindhu".[12] In Arabic, the term al-Hind (the Hind) also refers to 'the land of the people of modern day India'.[13]
The Persian term (Middle Persian Hindūk, New Persian Hindū) entered India with the Delhi Sultanate and appears in South Indian and Kashmiri texts from at least 1323 CE,[14] and increasingly so during British rule. Since the end of the 18th century the word has been used as an umbrella term for most of the religious, spiritual, and philosophical traditions of the sub-continent, usually excluding the religions of Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism as distinct.
The term Hinduism was introduced by the English people to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.[15]
Early European travelers and Christian missionaries coined the word "Brahmanism" to refer to Hinduism because the brahmin caste's domination of Hindu society and religion. Hindus prefer to call their religion either the Sanatana Dharma, the Eternal Religion, because it is based upon the eternal principles, or the Vaidika Dharma, the religion based upon the teachings of the Vedas. The country of the Hindus is traditionally known to them as Bharata or Bharatavarsa, derived from Bharata, an ancient king of India. [16]
Typology
Main article: Hindu denominations
Hinduism as we know it can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six darshanas, only two schools, Vedanta and Yoga survive. The main divisions of Hinduism today are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Smartism and Shaktism[17].
Contemporary Hinduism is predominantly monotheistic, but Hindu tradition includes aspects that can be interpreted as panentheistic, pantheistic, polytheistic and even atheistic. Other notable characteristics include a belief in reincarnation and karma, as well as in personal duty, or dharma.
McDaniel (2007) distinguishes six generic "types" of Hinduism, in an attempt to accommodate a variety of views on a rather complex subject:[18]
• Folk Hinduism, as based on local traditions and cults of local deities at a communal level and spanning back to prehistoric times or at least prior to written Vedas.
• Vedic Hinduism as still being practiced by traditionalist brahmins (for example shrautins).
• Vedantic Hinduism, for example Advaita (Smartism), as based on the philosophical approach of the Upanishads.
• Yogic Hinduism, especially that based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
• "Dharmic" Hinduism or "daily morality", based on the notion of Karma, and upon societal norms such as Hindu marriage customs.
• Bhakti or devotionalism, especially as in Vaishnavism.
Definitions
Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in declaration of faith or a creed",[19] but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena originating and based on the Vedic traditions.[20][21][22][23]
The term Hindu in origin is a Persian word in use from the time of the Delhi Sultanate, referring to any tradition that is native to India as opposed to Islam. Hindu is used in the sense of "Indian pagan" in English from the 17th century,[24] but the notion of Hinduism as an identifiable religious tradition qualifying as one of the world religions emerged only during the 19th century.
The characteristic of comprehensive tolerance to differences in belief, and Hinduism's dogmatic openness, makes it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions.[25] Although Hinduism is a clear practical concept to the majority of its adherents,[citation needed] many express a problem arriving at a definition of the term, mainly because of the wide range of traditions and ideas incorporated within it or covered by it.[19] While sometimes referred to as a religion, Hinduism is more often defined as a religious tradition.[1] It is therefore described as both the oldest of the world's religions, and the most diverse.[4][26][27][28] Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or sacred literature, the Vedas, although there are exceptions. Some Hindu religious traditions regard particular rituals as essential for salvation, but a variety of views on this co-exist. Some Hindu philosophies postulate a theistic ontology of creation, of sustenance, and of destruction of the universe, yet some Hindus are atheists. Hinduism is sometimes characterized by the belief in reincarnation (samsara), determined by the law of karma, and the idea that salvation is freedom from this cycle of repeated birth and death. However, other religions of the region, such as Buddhism and Jainism, also believe in karma, outside the scope of Hinduism.[19] Hinduism is therefore viewed as the most complex of all of the living, historical world religions.[29] Despite its complexity, Hinduism is not only one of the numerically largest faiths, but is also the oldest living major tradition on earth, with roots reaching back into prehistory.[30]
A definition of Hinduism, given by the first Vice President of India, who was also a prominent theologian, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, states that Hinduism is not "just a faith", but in itself is related to the union of reason and intuition. Radhakrishnan explicitly states that Hinduism cannot be defined, but is only to be experienced.[31] Similarly some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with "fuzzy edges", rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism, while others are not as central but still remain within the category. Based on this, Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism.[32]
Problems with the single definition of what is actually meant by the term 'Hinduism' are often attributed to the fact that Hinduism does not have a single or common historical founder. Hinduism, or as some say 'Hinduisms,' does not have a single system of salvation and has different goals according to each sect or denomination. The forms of Vedic religion are seen not as an alternative to Hinduism, but as its earliest form, and there is little justification for the divisions found in much western scholarly writing between Vedism, Brahmanism, and Hinduism.[7][33]
A definition of Hinduism is further complicated by the frequent use of the term "faith" as a synonym for "religion".[19] Some academics[34] and many practitioners refer to Hinduism using a native definition, as Sanātana Dharma, a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law", or the "eternal way".[2][35]
Beliefs
Hinduism refers to a religious mainstream which evolved organically and spread over a large territory marked by significant ethnic and cultural diversity. This mainstream evolved both by innovation from within, and by assimilation of external traditions or cults into the Hindu fold. The result is an enormous variety of religious traditions, ranging from innumerable small, unsophisticated cults to major religious movements with millions of adherents spread over the entire subcontinent. The identification of Hinduism as an independent religion separate from Buddhism or Jainism consequently hinges on the affirmation of its adherents that it is such.[36]
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to), Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (The continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various Yogas (paths or practices). [37]
Concept of God
Main article: God in Hinduism
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism,[38] panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism, and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each particular tradition and philosophy. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization.[39]
Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul — the true "self" of every person, called the ātman — is eternal.[40] According to the monistic/pantheistic theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is ultimately indistinct from Brahman, the supreme spirit. Hence, these schools are called non-dualist.[41] The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realize that one's ātman is identical to Brahman, the supreme soul.[42] The Upanishads state that whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman as the innermost core of one's own self realizes an identity with Brahman and thereby reaches moksha (liberation or freedom).[40][43]
Dualistic schools (see Dvaita and Bhakti) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being who possesses personality, and they worship him or her thus, as Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva, or Shakti, depending upon the sect. The ātman is dependent on God, while moksha depends on love towards God and on God's grace.[44] When God is viewed as the supreme personal being (rather than as the infinite principle), God is called Ishvara ("The Lord"[45]), Bhagavan ("The Auspicious One"[45]) or Parameshwara ("The Supreme Lord"[45]).[41] However interpretations of Ishvara vary, ranging from non-belief in Ishvara by followers of Mimamsakas, to identifying Brahman and Ishvara as one, as in Advaita.[41] In the majority of traditions of Vaishnavism he is Vishnu, God, and the text of Vaishnava scriptures identify this Being as Krishna, sometimes referred to as svayam bhagavan. There are also schools like the Samkhya which have atheistic leanings.[46]
Devas and avatars
The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas (or devī in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), "the shining ones", which may be translated into English as "gods" or "heavenly beings".[47] The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through icons, and mythological stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas. They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara, a supreme personal god, with many Hindus worshiping Ishvara in a particular form as their iṣṭa devatā, or chosen ideal.[48][49] The choice is a matter of individual preference,[50] and of regional and family traditions.[50]
Hindu epics and the Puranas relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in corporeal form to restore dharma to society and to guide humans to moksha. Such an incarnation is called an avatar. The most prominent avatars are of Vishnu and include Rama (the protagonist in Ramayana) and Krishna (a central figure in the epic Mahabharata).
Karma and samsara
Main article: Karma in Hinduism
Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed,[51] and can be described as the "moral law of cause and effect".[52] According to the Upanishads an individual, known as the jiva-atma, develops sanskaras (impressions) from actions, whether physical or mental. The linga sharira, a body more subtle than the physical one but less subtle than the soul, retains impressions, carrying them over into the next life, establishing a unique trajectory for the individual.[53] Thus, the concept of a universal, neutral, and never-failing karma intrinsically relates to reincarnation as well as to one's personality, characteristics, and family. Karma binds together the notions of free will and destiny.
This cycle of action, reaction, birth, death and rebirth is a continuum called samsara. The notion of reincarnation and karma is a strong premise in Hindu thought. The Bhagavad Gita states that:
“ As a person puts on new clothes and discards old and torn clothes,
similarly an embodied soul enters new material bodies, leaving the old bodies.(B.G. 2:22)[54]

Samsara provides ephemeral pleasures, which lead people to desire rebirth so as to enjoy the pleasures of a perishable body. However, escaping the world of samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace.[55][56] It is thought that after several reincarnations, an atman eventually seeks unity with the cosmic spirit (Brahman/Paramatman).
The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha, nirvana or samadhi, is understood in several different ways: as the realization of one's union with God; as the realization of one's eternal relationship with God; realization of the unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; as the attainment of perfect mental peace; and as detachment from worldly desires. Such realization liberates one from samsara and ends the cycle of rebirth.[57][58]
The exact conceptualization of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha an atman no longer identifies itself with an individual but as identical with Brahman in all respects. The followers of Dvaita (dualistic) schools identify themselves as part of Brahman, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a loka (heaven),[59] in the company of their chosen form of Ishvara. Thus, it is said that the followers of dvaita wish to "taste sugar", while the followers of Advaita wish to "become sugar".[60]
Objectives of human life
Main article: Purusharthas
Classical Hindu thought accepts the following objectives of human life, known as the puruṣārthas: dharma "righteousness, ethikos;" artha "livelihood, wealth;" kāma "sensual pleasure;" mokṣa "liberation, freedom (from samsara)".[61][62]
Yoga
In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Texts dedicated to Yoga include the Bhagavad Gita, the Yoga Sutras, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Paths that one can follow to achieve the spiritual goal of life (moksha, samadhi or nirvana) include:
• Bhakti Yoga (the path of love and devotion)
• Karma Yoga (the path of right action)
• Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation)
• Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom)[63]
An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Some devotional schools teach that bhakti is the only practical path to achieve spiritual perfection for most people, based on their belief that the world is currently in the Kali Yuga (one of four epochs which are part of the Yuga cycle).[64] Practice of one yoga does not exclude others. Many schools believe that the different yogas naturally blend into and aid other yogas. For example, the practice of jnana yoga, is thought to inevitably lead to pure love (the goal of bhakti yoga), and vice versa.[65] Someone practicing deep meditation (such as in raja yoga) must embody the core principles of karma yoga, jnana yoga and bhakti yoga, whether directly or indirectly.[63][66]
Practices
Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst of everyday life. Hindus can engage in pūjā (worship or veneration),[45] either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen form(s) of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory,[67] and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons (murtis). The icon serves as a tangible link between the worshiper and God.[68] The image is often considered a manifestation of God, since God is immanent. The Padma Purana states that the mūrti is not to be thought of as mere stone or wood but as a manifest form of the Divinity.[69] A few Hindu sects, such as the Ārya Samāj, do not believe in worshiping God through icons.
Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Parabrahman) and the Swastika sign (which symbolizes auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as tilaka identify a follower of the faith. Hinduism associates many symbols, which include the lotus, chakra and veena, with particular deities.
Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities. Many devotees perform morning ablutions at the bank of a sacred river while chanting the Gayatri Mantra or Mahamrityunjaya mantras.[citation needed] The epic Mahabharata extols Japa (ritualistic chanting) as the greatest duty in the Kali Yuga (what Hindus believe to be the current age).[citation needed] Many adopt Japa as their primary spiritual practice.[citation needed]
Rituals
The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis.[70] Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home.[71] but observation of rituals greatly vary among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping at the dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, meditation, chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc.[71] A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralised before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action.[71] Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world.[71] Vedic rites of fire-oblation (yajna) are now only occasional practices, although they are highly revered in theory. In Hindu wedding and burial ceremonies, however, the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras are still the norm.[72] The rituals, upacharas, change with time. For instance, in the past few hundred years some rituals, such as sacred dance and music offerings in the standard Sodasa Upacharas set prescribed by the Agama Shastra, were replaced by the offerings of rice and sweets.
Occasions like birth, marriage, and death involve what are often elaborate sets of religious customs. In Hinduism, life-cycle rituals include Annaprashan (a baby's first intake of solid food), Upanayanam ("sacred thread ceremony" undergone by upper-caste children at their initiation into formal education) and Śrāddha (ritual of treating people to feasts in the name of the deceased).[73][74] For most people in India, the betrothal of the young couple and the exact date and time of the wedding are matters decided by the parents in consultation with astrologers.[73] On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except sanyasis, hijra, and children under five[75]. Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre.
Pilgrimage and festivals
Pilgrimage is not mandatory in Hinduism, though many adherents undertake them[76] Hindus recognise several Indian holy cities, including Allahabad, Haridwar, Varanasi, and Vrindavan. Notable temple cities include Puri, which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Tirumala - Tirupati, home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple; and Katra, home to the Vaishno Devi temple. The four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri) compose the Char Dham (four abodes) pilgrimage circuit. The Kumbh Mela (the "pitcher festival") is one of the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages that is held every four years; the location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain. Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas, where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya.
Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year. The Hindu calendar usually prescribe their dates. The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, often coinciding with seasonal changes. There are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent. Some widely observed Hindu festivals are Maha Shivaratri, Holi, Ram Navami, Krishna Janmastami,Ganesh Chaturthi, Dussera, Durga Puja and Diwali.
Scriptures
Rig Veda is one of the oldest religious texts. This Rig Veda manuscript is in Devanagari
Hinduism is based on "the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times".[77][78] The scriptures were transmitted orally in verse form to aid memorization, for many centuries before they were written down.[79] Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the canon. In post-Vedic and current Hindu belief, most Hindu scriptures are not typically interpreted literally. More importance is attached to the ethics and metaphorical meanings derived from them.[80] Most sacred texts are in Sanskrit. The texts are classified into two classes: Shruti and Smriti.
Shruti
Shruti (lit: that which is heard)[81] primarily refers to the Vedas, which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures. While many Hindus revere the Vedas as eternal truths revealed to ancient sages (Ṛṣis),[78] some devotees do not associate the creation of the Vedas with a god or person. They are thought of as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages.[77][82][83] Hindus believe that because the spiritual truths of the Vedas are eternal, they continue to be expressed in new ways.[84]
There are four Vedas (called Ṛg-, Sāma-, Yajus- and Atharva-). The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda.[85] Each Veda is divided into four parts: the primary one, the Veda proper, being the Saṃhitā, which contains sacred mantras. The other three parts form a three-tier ensemble of commentaries, usually in prose and are believed to be slightly later in age than the Saṃhitā. These are: the Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, and the Upanishads. The first two parts were subsequently called the Karmakāṇḍa (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the Jñānakāṇḍa (knowledge portion).[86] While the Vedas focus on rituals, the Upanishads focus on spiritual insight and philosophical teachings, and discuss Brahman and reincarnation.[80][87][88]
Smritis
Hindu texts other than the Shrutis are collectively called the Smritis (memory). The most notable of the smritis are the epics, which consist of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa. The Bhagavad Gītā is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains philosophical teachings from Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu, told to the prince Arjuna on the eve of a great war. The Bhagavad Gītā, spoken by Krishna, is described as the essence of the Vedas.[89] However Gita, sometimes called Gitopanishad, is more often placed in the Shruti, category, being Upanishadic in content.[90] The Smritis also include the Purāṇas, which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives. There are texts with a sectarian nature such as Devī Mahātmya, the Tantras, the Yoga Sutras, Tirumantiram, Shiva Sutras and the Hindu Āgamas. A more controversial text, the Manusmriti, is a prescriptive lawbook which epitomizes the societal codes of the caste system.[citation needed]
History
The earliest evidence for prehistoric religion in India date back to the late Neolithic in the early Harappan period (5500–2600 BCE).[80][91] The beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) are called the "historical Vedic religion". Modern Hinduism grew out of the Vedas, the oldest of which is the Rigveda, dated to 1700–1100 BCE.[92] The Vedas center on worship of deities such as Indra, Varuna and Agni, and on the Soma ritual. They performed fire-sacrifices, called yajña, and chanted Vedic mantras but did not build temples or icons.[citation needed] The oldest Vedic traditions exhibit strong similarities to Zoroastrianism and other Indo-European religions.[93]
The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE. They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis, their interactions with humans and their battles against demons.
Three major movements underpinned the naissance of a new epoch of Hindu thought: the advent and spread of Upanishadic, Jaina, and Buddhist philosophico-religious thought throughout the broader Indian landmass.[94] Mahavira (24th Tirthankar of Jains) and Buddha (founder of Buddhism) taught that to achieve moksha or nirvana, one did not have to accept the authority of the Vedas or the caste system. Buddha went a step further and claimed that the existence of a Self/soul or God was unnecessary.[95] Buddhism peaked during the reign of Asoka the Great of the Mauryan Empire, who unified the Indian subcontinent in the 3rd century BCE. After 200 CE several schools of thought were formally codified in Indian philosophy, including Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Purva-Mimamsa and Vedanta.[96] Charvaka, the founder of an atheistic materialist school, came to the fore in North India in the sixth century BCE.[97] Between 400 BCE and 1000 CE Hinduism expanded at the expense of Buddhism.[98]
Sanskritic culture went into decline after the end of the Gupta period. The early medieval Puranas helped establish a religious mainstream among the pre-literate tribal societies undergoing acculturation. The tenets of Brahmanic Hinduism and of the Dharmashastras underwent a radical transformation at the hands of the Purana composers, resulting in the rise of a mainstream "Hinduism" that overshadowed all earlier traditions.[99
Though Islam came to India in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders and the conquest of Sindh, it started to become a major religion during the later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.[97] During this period Buddhism declined rapidly and many Hindus converted to Islam. Numerous Muslim rulers such as Aurangzeb destroyed Hindu temples and persecuted non-Muslims; however some, such as Akbar, were more tolerant. Hinduism underwent profound changes, in large part due to the influence of the prominent teachers Ramanuja, Madhva, and Chaitanya.[97] Followers of the Bhakti movement moved away from the abstract concept of Brahman, which the philosopher Adi Shankara consolidated a few centuries before, with emotional, passionate devotion towards the more accessible avatars, especially Krishna and Rama.[100]
Indology as an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as Max Müller and John Woodroffe. They brought Vedic, Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States. At the same time, societies such as the Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society attempted to reconcile and fuse Abrahamic and Dharmic philosophies, endeavouring to institute societal reform. This period saw the emergence of movements which, while highly innovative, were rooted in indigenous tradition. They were based on the personalities and teachings of individuals, as with Shri Ramakrishna and Ramana Maharshi. Prominent Hindu philosophers, including Sri Aurobindo and Swami Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON), translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, attracting followers and attention in India and abroad. Others such as Swami Vivekananda, Paramahansa Yogananda, B.K.S. Iyengar and Swami Rama have also been instrumental in raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West. Today modern movements, such as ISKCON and the Swaminarayan Faith, attract a large amount of followers across the world.[101]
Society
Denominations
Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination.[102] However, academics categorize contemporary Hinduism into four major denominations: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god.
Vaishnavas worship Vishnu as the supreme God; Shaivites worship Shiva as the supreme; Shaktas worship Shakti (power) personified through a female divinity or Mother Goddess, Devi; while Smartas believe in the essential oneness of five (panchadeva) or six (Shanmata, as Tamil Hindus add Skanda[103]) deities as personifications of the Supreme.
The Western conception of what Hinduism is has been defined by the Smarta view; many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers.[104]
Other denominations like Ganapatya (the cult of Ganesha) and Saura (Sun worship) are not so widespread.
There are movements that are not easily placed in any of the above categories, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati's Arya Samaj, which rejects image worship and veneration of multiple deities. It focuses on the Vedas and the Vedic fire sacrifices (yajña).
The Tantric traditions have various sects, as Banerji observes:
“ Tantras are ... also divided as āstika or Vedic and nāstika or non-Vedic. In accordance with the predominance of the deity the āstika works are again divided as Śākta (Shakta), Śaiva (Shaiva), Saura, Gāṇapatya and Vaiṣṇava (Vaishnava).[105]

As in every religion, some view their own denomination as superior to others. However, many Hindus consider other denominations to be legitimate alternatives to their own.[citation needed] Heresy is therefore generally not an issue for Hindus.[106]
Ashramas
Main article: Ashrama
Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āshramas (phases or stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The first part of one's life, Brahmacharya, the stage as a student, is spent in celibate, controlled, sober and pure contemplation under the guidance of a Guru, building up the mind for spiritual knowledge. Grihastha is the householder's stage, in which one marries and satisfies kāma and artha in one's married and professional life respectively (see the goals of life). The moral obligations of a Hindu householder include supporting one's parents, children, guests and holy figures. Vānaprastha, the retirement stage, is gradual detachment from the material world. This may involve giving over duties to one's children, spending more time in religious practices and embarking on holy pilgrimages. Finally, in Sannyāsa, the stage of asceticism, one renounces all worldly attachments to secludedly find the Divine through detachment from worldly life and peacefully shed the body for Moksha.[107]
Monasticism
Main article: Sannyasa
Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy, detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God.[108] A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu, or swāmi. A female renunciate is called a sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their needs.[109] It is considered a highly meritorious act for a householder to provide sādhus with food or other necessaries. Sādhus strive to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked, and to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain.[108]
Varnas
Main article: Varna in Hinduism
Hindu society has traditionally been categorized into four classes, called Varnas (Sanskrit: "colour, form, appearance"):[45]
• the Brahmins: teachers and priests;
• the Kshatriyas: warriors, nobles, and kings;
• the Vaishyas: farmers, merchants, and businessmen; and
• the Shudras: servants and labourers.
Hindus and scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is an integral part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or an outdated social custom.[110] Among the scriptures, the Shrutis do contain verses that mention the Varna system, but very sparingly and descriptively (i.e., not prescriptive). Indeed, the only verse in the Rigveda which mentions all four varnas is 10.90, the Purushasūkta. The other varnas, the Brahmā (i.e. Brahmins) and Rājanya (i.e. Kshatriyas) are mentioned separately in some other verses in the Rigveda (e.g. RV 10.80.1) and the other Vedas, and rarely in the Upanishads. Some—definitely including most Smriti texts—have interpreted these as prescribing the division of society in the four varnas. A verse from the Rig Veda indicates that a person's occupation was not necessarily determined by that of his family:
“ "I am a bard, my father is a physician, my mother's job is to grind the corn." (Rig Veda 9.112.3)[111]

In the Vedic Era, there was no prohibition against the Shudras listening to the Vedas or participating in any religious rite, as was the case in the later times.[112] Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists.[113][114]
The Smritis, having interpreted the Vedic mentions of the varnas as prescriptive, clearly sanction the division of the society into the four varnas, and also mention various sub-divisions within these varnas, which would later emerge as the present birth-based caste system.
Many social reformers, including Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar, criticized caste discrimination.[115] The religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna (1836-1886) taught that
“ "Lovers of God do not belong to any caste . . . . A brahmin without this love is no longer a brahmin. And a pariah with the love of God is no longer a pariah. Through bhakti (devotion to God) an untouchable becomes pure and elevated."[116]

Ahimsa and vegetarianism
Main articles: Ahimsa and Vegetarianism and religion
Hindus advocate the practice of ahiṃsā (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals.[117] The term ahiṃsā appears in the Upanishads,[118] the epic Mahabharata[119] and Ahiṃsā is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.[120]
In accordance with ahiṃsā, many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Vegetarianism is propagated by the Yajur Veda and it is recommended for a satvic (purifying) lifestyle.[121] Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%.[122] The food habits vary with the community and region, for example some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood.[123][124] Some Hindus avoid onion and garlic, which are regarded as rajasic foods.[125] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days.
Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure[126], and Hindu society honors the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving[127].
Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India.[128] See further discussion at Cattle in Religion and Food taboo.
Conversion
Concepts of conversion, evangelization, and proselytization are absent from Hindu texts and in practice have never played a significant role, though acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common. Early in its history, in the absence of other competing religions, Hindus considered everyone they came across as Hindus and expected everyone they met to be Hindus.[129][130]
Hindus today continue to be influenced by historical ideas of acceptability of conversion. Hence, many Hindus continue to believe that Hinduism is an identity that can only be had from birth, while many others continue to believe that anyone who follows Hindu beliefs and practices is a Hindu, and many believe in some form of both theories. However, as a reaction to perceived and actual threat of evangelization, prozelyzation, and conversion activities of other major religions most modern Hindus are opposed to the idea of conversion from (any) one religion to (any) other per se.[131]
Hindus in Western countries generally accept and welcome willing converts, whereas in India acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common. With the rise of Hindu revivalist movements, reconversions to Hinduism have also risen.[132] Reconversions are well accepted since conversion out of Hinduism is not recognized.[133] Conversion into Hinduism through marriage is well accepted and often expected in order to enable the non-Hindu partner to fully participate in their spiritual, religious, and cultural roles within the larger Hindu family and society.[citation needed]
There is no formal process for converting to Hinduism, although in many traditions a ritual called dīkshā ("initiation") marks the beginning of spiritual life. A ritual called shuddhi ("purification") sometimes marks the return to spiritual life after reconversion. Most Hindu sects do not seek converts,[134][135][136][137] as they believe that the goals of spiritual life can be attained through any religion, as long as it is practiced sincerely.[134][138] However, some Hindu sects and affiliates such as Arya Samaj, Saiva Siddhanta Church, BAPS, and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness accept those who have a desire to follow Hinduism.
In general, Hindu view of religious freedom is not based on the freedom to proselytize, but the right to retain one’s religion and not be subject to proselytization. Hindu leaders are advocating for changing the existing formulation of the freedom of religion clause in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since it favors religions which proselytize.[139]


Judaism
Judaism (from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] in Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת, Yahadut) is a set of beliefs and practices originating in the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh, and explored and explained in later texts such as the Talmud. Jews consider Judaism to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel—originally a group of around a dozen tribes claiming descent from the Biblical patriarch Jacob and later the Jewish people.[3] According to most branches, God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.[4] However, Karaite Judaism maintains that only the Written Torah was revealed,[5] and liberal denominations such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.[6]
Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning well over 3000 years. It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions,[7] and the oldest to survive into the present day.[8][9] Its texts, traditions and values have inspired later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith.[9][10] Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.[11]
The current world Jewish population is estimated over 13 million, of which about 40% reside in Israel[12] and 40% in the United States.[13] This includes Jews by birth, and those who have converted to Judaism.
In more conservative branches such as Orthodox Judaism, conversion entails a full commitment to Jewish observance. At least in principle, these branches expect a similar level of commitment from every Jew.[14][15] Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary.[16] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the many rabbis and scholars who interpret these texts.[17]
Religious doctrine and principles of faith
Main article: Jewish principles of faith
13 Principles of Faith:
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things.
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no (physical) comparison to Him whatsoever.
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last.
I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.
I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true.
I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him.
I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him.
I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged, and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name.
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" (Psalms 33:15).
I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.
I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming.
I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever.
—-Maimonides

Judaism is a monotheistic religion based upon principles and ethics embodied in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), as further explored and explained in the Talmud and other texts. According to Jewish tradition, Judaism begins with the Covenant between God and Abraham.
While Judaism has seldom, if ever, been monolithic in practice, it has always been fiercely monotheistic in theology - although the Tanakh records significant periods of apostasy, among many Israelites, from Judaism's beliefs.
Historically, Judaism has considered belief in the divine revelation[18] and acceptance of the Written and Oral Torah as its fundamental core belief, but Judaism does not have a centralized authority dictating religious dogma. This gave rise to many different formulations as to the specific theological beliefs inherent in the Torah and Talmud. While some rabbis have at times agreed upon a firm formulation, others have disagreed, many criticizing any such attempt as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah.[19] Notably, in the Talmud some principles of faith (e.g., the Divine origin of the Torah) are considered important enough that rejection of them can put one in the category of "apikoros" (heretic).[20]
Over the centuries, a number of formulations of Jewish principles of faith have appeared, and though they differ with respect to certain details, they demonstrate a commonality of core ideology. Of these formulations, the one most widely considered authoritative is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith, formulated in the XII century. These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. Maimonides thirteen principles were ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries.[21] Over time two poetic restatements of these principles ("Ani Ma'amin" and "Yigdal") became canonized in the Jewish prayer book, and eventually became widely held.
According to Maimonides, any Jew to reject even one of his 13 principles would have to be considered an apostate and a heretic.[22][23] Although many Jewish scholars have held points of view diverging in relatively minor ways from Maimonides' 13 principles,[24] and Judaism has never known any one normative and binding creed of faith,[24][25][26] these 13 principles as formulated by the Rambam are the closest anyone has ever come to creating a widely-accepted list of Jewish beliefs.[27][28]
Joseph Albo and the Raavad have criticized Maimonides' list as containing too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith, and thus placed too many Jews in the category of "heretic", rather than those who were simply in error. Many others criticized any such formulation as minimizing acceptance of the entire Torah (see above). As noted however, neither Maimonides nor his contemporaries viewed these principles as encompassing all of Jewish belief, but rather as the core theological underpinnings of the acceptance of Judaism. Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs.
Judaism
In traditional Judaism, sex and reproduction are the holiest of acts, permitting one to imitate God, "The Creator". There are, however, many boundaries and guidelines. Within the boundaries, there are virtually no outright strictures. Judaism forbids sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage, maintains biblical strictures on relations within marriage including observance of Niddah, a prohibition on relations for a period including the menstrual period, and Tzniut, requirements of modest dress and behavior. Traditional Judaism views adultery, incest, and male homosexuality as grave sins.
Jewish religious texts
Rabbinic literature
Judaism has at all times[citation needed] valued Torah study, as well as other religious texts. The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought. For more detail, see Rabbinic literature.
• Tanakh[29] (Hebrew Bible) and commentaries
• Mesorah
• Targum
• Jewish Biblical exegesis (also see Midrash below)
• Works of the Talmudic Era (classic rabbinic literature)
• Mishnah and commentaries
• Tosefta and the minor tractates
• Talmud:
• The Babylonian Talmud and commentaries
• Jerusalem Talmud and commentaries
• Midrashic literature:
• Halakhic Midrash
• Aggadic Midrash
• Halakhic literature
• Major Codes of Jewish Law and Custom
• Mishneh Torah and commentaries
• Tur and commentaries
• Shulchan Aruch and commentaries
• Responsa literature
• Jewish Thought and Ethics
• Jewish philosophy
• Kabbalah
• Hasidic works
• Jewish ethics and the Mussar Movement
• Siddur and Jewish liturgy
• Piyyut (Classical Jewish poetry)
Jewish legal literature
Main article: Halakha
The basis of Jewish law and tradition (halakha) is the Torah (also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses). According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and fewer than 300 of these commandments are still applicable today.
While there have been Jewish groups whose beliefs were claimed to be based on the written text of the Torah alone (e.g., the Sadducees, and the Karaites), most Jews believed in what they call the oral law. These oral traditions were transmitted by the Pharisee sect of ancient Judaism, and were later recorded in written form and expanded upon by the rabbis.
Rabbinic Judaism (which derives from the Pharisees) has always held that the books of the Torah (called the written law) have always been transmitted in parallel with an oral tradition. To justify this viewpoint, Jews point to the text of the Torah, where many words are left undefined, and many procedures mentioned without explanation or instructions; this, they argue, means that the reader is assumed to be familiar with the details from other, i.e., oral, sources. This parallel set of material was originally transmitted orally, and came to be known as "the oral law".
By the time of Rabbi Judah haNasi (200 CE), after the destruction of Jerusalem, much of this material was edited together into the Mishnah. Over the next four centuries this law underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel and Babylonia), and the commentaries on the Mishnah from each of these communities eventually came to be edited together into compilations known as the two Talmuds. These have been expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages.
Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition - the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud and its commentaries. The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, Sheelot U-Teshuvot.) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulchan Aruch, largely determines Orthodox religious practice today.
Jewish philosophy
Main article: Jewish philosophy
Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Maimonides, and Gersonides. Major changes occurred in response to the Enlightenment (late 1700s to early 1800s) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers. Modern Jewish philosophy consists of both Orthodox and non-Orthodox oriented philosophy. Notable among Orthodox Jewish philosophers are Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, and Yitzchok Hutner. Well-known non-Orthodox Jewish philosophers include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham Joshua Heschel, and Emmanuel Lévinas.
Related Topics
• Torah databases (electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf)
• List of Jewish prayers and blessings
Jewish identity
Origin of the term "Judaism"
The earliest known instance of the term used to mean "the profession or practice of the Jewish religion; the religious system or polity of the Jews," is Robert Fabyan's The newe cronycles of Englande and of Fraunce a 1513. As an English translation of the Latin, the first instance in English is a 1611 translation of the Apocrypha, 2 Macc. ii. 21 "Those that behaved themselues manfully to their honour for Iudaisme."[30]
Distinction between Jews as a people and Judaism
According to Daniel Boyarin, the underlying distinction between religion and ethnicity is foreign to Judaism itself, and is one form of the dualism between spirit and flesh that has its origin in Platonic philosophy and that permeated Hellenistic Judaism.[31] Consequently, in his view, Judaism does not fit easily into conventional Western categories, such as religion, ethnicity, or culture. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's 4,000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West (that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe). During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile; in the Diasporas, they have been in contact with and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment (see Haskalah) and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in the Levant. They also saw an elite convert to Judaism (the Khazars), only to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols. Thus, Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension."[32]
In contrast to this point of view, practices such as Humanistic Judaism reject the religious aspects of Judaism, while retaining certain cultural traditions.
What makes a person Jewish?
Main article: Who is a Jew?
According to traditional Jewish Law, a Jew is anyone born of a Jewish mother or converted to Judaism in accord with Jewish Law. American Reform Judaism and British Liberal Judaism accept the child of one Jewish parent (father or mother) as Jewish if the parents raise the child with a Jewish identity. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts, although conversion has traditionally been discouraged. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is examined on his or her sincerity and knowledge.[33] Converts are given the name "ben Abraham" or "bat Abraham", (son or daughter of Abraham).
Traditional Judaism maintains that a Jew, whether by birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. Thus a Jew who claims to be an atheist or converts to another religion is still considered by traditional Judaism to be Jewish. However, the Reform movement maintains that a Jew who has converted to another religion is no longer a Jew,[34][35] and the Israeli Government has also taken that stance after Supreme Court cases and statutes.[36]
The question of what determines Jewish identity in the State of Israel was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David Ben-Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide in order to settle citizenship questions. This is still not settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics.
Jewish demographics
Main article: Jewish population
The total number of Jews worldwide is difficult to assess because the definition of "who is a Jew" is problematic; not all Jews identify themselves as Jewish, and some who identify as Jewish are not considered so by other Jews. According to the Jewish Year Book (1901), the global Jewish population in 1900 was around 11 million. The latest available data is from the World Jewish Population Survey of 2002 and the Jewish Year Calendar (2005). In 2002, according to the Jewish Population Survey, there were 13.3 million Jews around the world. The Jewish Year Calendar cites 14.6 million. Jewish population growth is currently near zero percent, with 0.3% growth from 2000 to 2001. Intermarriage and the declining birthrate have influenced Jewish population figures, although conversion to Judaism may help to offset this slightly.[citation needed]
It has been noted by some writers that the apparent prominence of Jews is disproportionate to the size of their population. One example, Mark Twain comments:
If statistics are right, the Jews constitute but one percent of the human race. It suggests a nebulous dim puff of stardust lost in the blaze of the Milky Way. Properly, the Jew ought hardly to be heard of, but he is heard of, has always been heard of. He is as prominent on the planet as any other people, and his commercial importance is extravagantly out of proportion to the smallness of his bulk. His contributions to the world's list of great names in literature, science, art, music, finance, medicine, and abstruse learning are also away out of proportion to the weakness of his numbers. He has made a marvelous fight in this world, in all the ages; and had done it with his hands tied behind him. He could be vain of himself, and be excused for it. The Egyptian, the Babylonian, and the Persian rose, filled the planet with sound and splendor, then faded to dream-stuff and passed away; the Greek and the Roman followed; and made a vast noise, and they are gone; other people have sprung up and held their torch high for a time, but it burned out, and they sit in twilight now, or have vanished. The Jew saw them all, beat them all, and is now what he always was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmities of age, no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dulling of his alert and aggressive mind. All things are mortal but the Jew; all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?[37]
Jewish denominations
In the late Middle Ages, when Europe and western Asia were divided into Christian and Islamic countries, the Jewish people also found themselves divided into two main groups. Jews in Central and Eastern Europe, namely in Germany and Poland, were called Ashkenazi. Sephardic Jews can trace their tradition back to the Mediterranean countries, particularly Spain and Portugal under Muslim rule. When they were expelled in 1492, they settled in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, the Far East, and northern Europe. The two traditions differ in a number of ritual and cultural details, but their theology and basic Jewish practice are the same.
Over the past two centuries the Ashkenazi Jewish community has divided into a number of Jewish denominations; each has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, (although belief plays a lesser role than practice and observance in Judaism) and how one should live as a Jew. To some degree, these doctrinal differences have created schisms between the Jewish denominations. Nonetheless, there is some level of Jewish unity. For example, it would not be unusual for a Conservative Jew to attend either an Orthodox or Reform synagogue. The article on Relationships between Jewish religious movements discusses how different Jewish denominations view each other. Many non-Ashkenazi Jews, especially in the United States, are members of congregations affiliated with the various movements, although they may not specifically identify themselves as members of that denomination. They frequently do so out of convenience, and are likely to describe their religious practice as "traditional" or "observant", as opposed to "Orthodox" or "Conservative".
• Orthodox Judaism holds that both the Written and Oral Torah were divinely revealed to Moses, and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Orthodox Jews generally consider commentaries on the Shulchan Aruch (a condensed codification of halakha that largely favored Sephardic traditions) such as the Moses Isserlis's HaMappah and the Mishnah Berurah, to be the definitive codification of Jewish law, and assert a continuity between the Judaism of the Temple in Jerusalem, pre-Enlightenment Rabbinic Judaism, and modern-day Orthodox Judaism. Most of Orthodox Judaism holds to one particular form of Jewish theology, based on Maimonides' 13 principles of Jewish faith. Orthodox Judaism broadly (and informally) shades into two main styles, Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism. The philosophical distinction is generally around accommodation to modernity and weight placed on non-Jewish disciplines, though in practical terms the differences are often reflected in styles of dress and rigor in practice. According to most Orthodox Jews, Jewish people who do not keep the laws of Shabbat and Yom Tov (the holidays), kashrut, and family purity are considered non-religious. Any Jew who keeps at least those laws would be considered observant and religious.
• Modern Orthodox Judaism emphasizes strict observance of religious laws and commandments but with a broad, liberal approach to modernity and living in a non-Jewish or secular environment. Modern Orthodox women are gradually assuming a greater role in Jewish ritual practice, which is not acceptable in the Haredi community.
• Haredi Judaism (also known as "ultra-Orthodox Judaism", although some find this term offensive) is a very conservative form of Judaism. The Haredi world revolves around study, prayer and meticulous religious observance. Some Haredi Jews are more open to the modern world, perhaps most notably the Lubavitch Hasidim, but their acceptance of modernity is more a tool for enhancing Jewish faith than an end in itself.
• Hasidic Judaism is a stream of Haredi Judaism based on the teachings of Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer (The Ba'al Shem Tov). Hasidic philosophy is rooted in the Kabbalah, and Hasidic Jews accept the Kabbalah as sacred scripture. They are distinguished both by a variety of special customs and practices including reliance on a Rebbe or supreme religious leader, and a special dress code particular to each Hasidic group.
• Conservative Judaism, known as Masorti Judaism outside of the United States and Canada, was founded in Europe and the United States in the 1800s by rabbis and scholars who were disaffected from either Reform or Orthodox Judaism as adequate responses to the Enlightenment. It is characterized by a commitment to following traditional Jewish laws and customs, including observance of Shabbat and kashrut, a deliberately non-fundamentalist teaching of Jewish principles of faith, a positive attitude toward modern culture, and an acceptance of both traditional rabbinic modes of study along with modern scholarship and critical text study when considering Jewish religious texts. Conservative Judaism teaches that Jewish law is not static, but has always developed in response to changing conditions. It holds that the Torah is a divine document written by prophets inspired by God and reflecting his will, but rejects the Orthodox position that it was dictated by God to Moses.[38][39] Similarly, Conservative Judaism holds that Judaism's Oral Law is divine and normative, but rejects some Orthodox interpretations of the Oral Law. Accordingly, Conservative Judaism holds that both the Written and Oral Law may be interpreted by the rabbis to reflect modern sensibilities and suit modern conditions, although great caution should be exercised in doing so. There is no absolute uniformity within Conservative Judaism and the communities that retain more traditional practices are sometimes called Conservadox.
• Reform Judaism, called Liberal or Progressive in many countries, originally formed in Germany in response to the Enlightenment. (Note that in the United Kingdom, there are two distinct congregational unions, Reform and Liberal. The former is significantly more traditional than the latter, but both hold to similar theoretical positions.) Its defining characteristic with respect to the other movements is its rejection of the binding nature of Jewish ceremonial law as such and belief instead that individual Jews should exercise an informed autonomy about what to observe. Reform Judaism initially defined Judaism as a religion, rather than as a race or culture, rejected most of the ritual ceremonial laws of the Torah while observing moral laws, and emphasized the ethical call of the Prophets. Reform Judaism developed an egalitarian prayer service in the vernacular (along with Hebrew in many cases) and emphasized personal connection to Jewish tradition over specific forms of observance. Today, many Reform congregations encourage the study of Hebrew and traditional observances, while a smaller number continue to espouse the liberal ethos of the classical reformers of the nineteenth century.
• Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin.
Traditionally, Jews recite prayers three times daily, with a fourth prayer added on Shabbat and holidays. At the heart of each service is the Amidah or Shemoneh Esrei. Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema Yisrael (or Shema). The Shema is the recitation of a verse from the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4): Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad—"Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God! The Lord is One!"
Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be recited in solitary prayer, although communal prayer is preferred. Communal prayer requires a quorum of ten adult Jews, called a minyan. In nearly all Orthodox and a few Conservative circles, only male Jews are counted toward a minyan; most Conservative Jews and members of other Jewish denominations count female Jews as well.
In addition to prayer services, observant traditional Jews recite prayers and benedictions throughout the day when performing various acts. Prayers are recited upon waking up in the morning, before eating or drinking different foods, after eating a meal, and so on.
The approach to prayer varies among the Jewish denominations. Differences can include the texts of prayers, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, the use of musical instruments and choral music, and whether prayers are recited in the traditional liturgical languages or the vernacular. In general, Orthodox and Conservative congregations adhere most closely to tradition, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations and contemporary writings in their services. Also, in most Conservative synagogues, and all Reform and Reconstructionist congregations, women participate in prayer services on an equal basis with men, including roles traditionally filled only by men, such as reading from the Torah. In addition, many Reform temples use musical accompaniment such as organs and mixed choirs.
Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays are special days in the Jewish calendar, which celebrate moments in Jewish history, as well as central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption.

Purpose of sex:
Since time immemorial, sex has been seen as an act for reproduction, thanks to religious and social priests. Sex is a natural instinct, which needs to be enjoyed, may be tough to digest but it is a fact.
All problems relating to sex arise due to one basic blunder committed by humanity down the ages - treating sex as a moral issue. Ancient Indians never looked upon it as an ethical value though; for them, it was a natural instinct, needed for procreation as well as pleasure. We cannot forget that the great sexologist Vyatsayana was born in India and that Tantra, the most mature way of dealing with sex
Social history
Sex for procreation came under social and religious domain and there were rituals built around it by priests. The procreative aspect of sex was accepted so naturally that when the husband died childless, his elder brother or a trusted sage was asked to have intercourse with the woman and produce children. Manusmruti called this process Niyoga. This act was a religious ritual and the couple was not supposed to enjoy it! They used to apply oil on their bodies so that they remain detached during the act.
However, the human being is not only a body; he/she also has emotions and intelligence. So his higher sensibilities motivated him to seek pleasure out of sex. The Indian name for sex is Kama which is expansive and all-inclusive. Kama means desire, the lust for life. Lust is yet again a condemned word; in fact, all that allows people to enjoy the pleasures of the flesh and the senses is condemned by moral custodians because they are afraid that people will get lost in sensuous delights. Kama is the libido, the life energy, not necessarily sexual. All creativity is motivated by Kama, it is the desire to create as well as procreate.
If we want sex to be accepted as a natural instinct, we have to drop the moral firewall built around it. In this nuclear age, sex can be understood as pure energy because we have developed scientific understanding. Once we acknowledge that sex is the bio energy, we can make efforts to transform it. Just as water when boiled becomes vapour, and the vapour travels upwards and becomes clouds, sexual energy can be transformed into higher states. The higher forms of sex energy are love, compassion and enlightened consciousness.
Tantra's greatest contribution to humanity is that it has created many devices to sublimate the sexual energy and turn it into an experience of higher consciousness.
Osho is the first master who saw the disaster of repressed sexuality. And the disaster is that human sex has become cerebral. The distorted and perverted humanity of today is the end result of repression. No animal rapes its females like man does. No animal needs artificial stimulants like viagra. Have you ever seen any clinic of sexologists for animals or birds? The whole porno literature is a sign of a sick attitude towards sex.
Sex used for reproduction is biological, and sex as recreation belongs to the human world alone because it has arisen out of the human need for love, sensuality, aesthetics, relating, pleasure and ecstasy. This has always been the case. The art of sex developed due to this need. Men always had two kinds of mates: the housewife and the mistress. The roles of these women were clearly marked. We can divide them into procreation and recreation. Those women who could procreate were usually not so good at recreating their husbands because their total focus was on rearing children. Their bodies changed after the childbirth
Whereas we were raped by Sex Videos from our child to adult even we are in love by our Sex instinct .This matter shall be entitled us to be a lesbian or gay,bi sexual or"Nap","Unfaithful"...by the Sex Hormnes remaining on our body as we wish to gain it.
Lesbian

Lesbian is a term most widely used in the English language to describe sexual and romantic desire between females.[1] The word may be used as a noun, to refer to women who identify themselves or who are characterized by others as having the primary attribute of female homosexuality, or as an adjective, to describe characteristics of an object or activity related to female same-sex desire.[2]
Lesbian as a concept, used to differentiate women with a shared sexual orientation, is a 20th-century construct. Although female homosexuality has appeared in many cultures throughout time, not until recently has lesbian described a group of people. In the late 19th century, sexologists published their observations on same-sex desire and behavior, and designated lesbians in Western culture as a distinct entity. As a result, women who became aware of their new medical status formed underground subcultures in Europe and North America. Further broadening of the term occurred in the 1970s with the influence of second wave feminism. Historians since have re-examined relationships between women in history, and have questioned what qualifies a woman or a relationship as lesbian. The result of such discussion has introduced three components to identifying lesbians: sexual behavior, sexual desire, or sexual identity.
Women's sexuality throughout history has largely been constructed by men, who have limited acknowledgment of lesbianism either as a possibility or a valid expression of sexuality due to the absence of males in a lesbian relationship. Early sexologists based their characterization of lesbians on their beliefs that women who challenged their strictly prescribed gender roles were mentally ill. Since then, many lesbians have often reacted to their designation as immoral outcasts by constructing a subculture based on gender role rebellion. Lesbianism has sometimes been in vogue throughout history, which affects how lesbians are viewed by others as well as how they view themselves. Some women who engage in homosexual behavior may reject the lesbian identity entirely, refusing to identify themselves as lesbian or bisexual.
The different ways lesbians have been portrayed in the media suggests that Western society at large has been simultaneously intrigued and threatened by women who challenge feminine gender roles, and fascinated and appalled with women who are romantically involved with other women. Women who adopt the lesbian identity, however, share experiences that form an outlook similar to ethnic identity: as homosexuals, they are unified by the discrimination and potential rejection they face from their families, friends, and others. As women, they face concerns separate from men. Lesbians may encounter distinct health concerns. Political conditions and social attitudes also continue to affect the formation of lesbian relationships and families.
Female homosexuality without identity
The varied meanings of lesbian since the early 20th century has prompted some historians to revisit historic relationships between women before the wide usage of the word was defined by erotic proclivities. Discussion from historians caused further questioning of what qualifies as a lesbian relationship. As lesbian-feminists asserted, a sexual component was unnecessary in declaring oneself a lesbian if her primary and closest relationships were with women. When considering past relationships within appropriate historic context, there were times when love and sex were separate and unrelated notions.[68] In 1989 an academic cohort named the Lesbian History Group wrote:
Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high degree of certainty is expected before historians or biographers are allowed to use the label. Evidence that would suffice in any other situation is inadequate here... A woman who never married, who lived with another woman, whose friends were mostly women, or who moved in known lesbian or mixed gay circles, may well have been a lesbian. ... But this sort of evidence is not 'proof'. What our critics want is incontrovertible evidence of sexual activity between women. This is almost impossible to find.[69]
Female sexuality is often not adequately represented in texts and documents. Until very recently, much of what has been documented about women's sexuality has been written by men, in the context of male understanding, and relevant to women's associations to men—as their wives, daughters, or mothers, for example.[70] Often artistic representations of female sexuality suggest trends or ideas on broad scales, giving historians clues as to how widespread or accepted erotic relationships between women were
Health
Physical
In terms of medical issues, lesbians are referred to as women who have sex with women (WSW) due to the misconceptions and assumptions about women's sexuality and some women's hesitancy to disclose their accurate sexual histories even to a physician.[146] Many self-identified lesbians neglect to see a physician because they do not participate in heterosexual activity and require no birth control, which is the initiating factor for most women to seek consultation with a gynecologist when they become sexually active.[147] As a result, many lesbians are not screened regularly with pap smears. The U.S. government reports that some lesbians neglect seeking medical screening in the U.S.; they lack health insurance because many employers do not offer health benefits to domestic partners.[148]
The result of the lack of medical information on WSW is that medical professionals and some lesbians perceive lesbians as having lower risks of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or types of cancer. When women do seek medical attention, medical professionals often fail to take a complete medical history. In a recent study of 2,345 lesbian and bisexual women, only 9.3% had claimed they had ever been asked their sexual orientation by a physician. A third of the respondents believed disclosing their sexual history would result in a negative reaction, and 30% had received a negative reaction from a medical professional after identifying themselves as lesbian or bisexual.[149] A patient's complete history helps medical professionals identify higher risk areas and corrects assumptions about the personal histories of women. In a similar survey of 6,935 lesbians, 77% had had sexual contact with one or more male partners, and 6% had that contact within the previous year.[149][note 12]
Heart disease is listed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the number one cause of death for all women. Factors that add to risk of heart disease include obesity and smoking, both of which are more prevalent in lesbians. Studies show that lesbians have a higher body mass and are generally less concerned about weight issues than heterosexual women, and lesbians consider women with higher body mass indexes to be more attractive than heterosexual women do. Lesbians are more likely to exercise regularly than heterosexual women, and lesbians do not generally exercise for aesthetic reasons, although heterosexual women do.[150] Research is needed to determine specific causes of obesity in lesbians.[148][149]
Lack of differentiation between homosexual and heterosexual women in medical studies that concentrate on health issues for women skews results for lesbians and non-lesbian women. Reports are inconclusive about occurrence of breast cancer in lesbians.[149] It has been determined, however, that the lower rate of lesbians tested by regular pap smears makes it more difficult to detect cervical cancer at early stages in lesbians. The risk factors for developing ovarian cancer rates are higher in lesbians than heterosexual women, perhaps because many lesbians lack protective factors of pregnancy, abortion, contraceptives, breast feeding, and miscarriages.[151]
Safer Sex Recommendations for
Women Who Have Sex with Women
• Avoid contact with a partner’s menstrual blood and with any visible genital lesions.
• Cover sex toys that penetrate more than one person’s vagina or anus with a new condom for each person; consider using different toys for each person.
• Use a barrier (e.g., latex sheet, dental dam, cut-open condom, plastic wrap) during oral sex.
• Use latex or vinyl gloves and lubricant for any manual sex that might cause bleeding.[149]


Some sexually transmitted diseases are communicable between women, including Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)—specifically genital warts—squamous intraepithelial lesions, trichomoniasis, syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus (HSV). Transmission of specific sexually transmitted diseases among women who have sex with women depends on the sexual practices women engage in. Any object that comes in contact with cervical secretions, vaginal mucosa, or menstrual blood, including fingers or penetrative objects may transmit sexually transmitted diseases.[152] Orogenital contact may indicate a higher risk of acquiring HSV,[153] even among women who have had no prior sex with men.[154] Bacterial vaginosis (BV) occurs more often in lesbians, but it is unclear if BV is transmitted by sexual contact; it occurs in celibate as well as sexually active women. BV often occurs in both partners in a lesbian relationship;[155] a recent study of women with BV found that 81% had partners with BV.[156] Lesbians are not included in a category of frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission, although transmission is possible through vaginal and cervical secretions. The highest rate of transmission of HIV to lesbians is among women who participate in intravenous drug use or have sexual intercourse with bisexual men.[157][158]
Mental
Since medical literature began to describe homosexuality, it has often been approached from a view that sought to find an inherent psychopathology as the root cause, influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Although he considered bisexuality inherent in all people, and most have phases of homosexual attraction or experimentation, exclusive same-sex attraction he attributed to stunted development due to trauma or parental conflicts.[159][note 13] Much literature on mental health and lesbians centered on their depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Although these issues exist among lesbians, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures indicate factors homosexuals face in Western societies that often adversely affect their mental health.[160] Women who identify as lesbian report feeling significantly different and isolated during adolescence;[160][161] these emotions have been cited as appearing on average at 15 years old in lesbians and 18 years old in women who identify as bisexual.[162] On the whole, women tend to work through developing a self-concept internally, or with other women with whom they are intimate. Women also limit who they divulge their sexual identities to, and more often see being lesbian as a choice, as opposed to gay men, who work more externally and see being gay as outside their control.[161]
Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental health issues for women. Depression is reported among lesbians at a rate similar to heterosexual women,[163] although Generalized Anxiety Disorder is more likely to appear among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women.[160][note 14] Depression is a more significant problem among women who feel they must hide their sexual orientation from friends and family, or experience compounded ethnic or religious discrimination, or endure relationship difficulties with no support system.[164] Men's shaping of women's sexuality has proven to have an effect on how lesbians see their own bodies. Studies have shown that heterosexual men and lesbians have different standards for what they consider attractive in women. Lesbians who view themselves with male standards of female beauty may experience lower self-esteem, eating disorders, and higher incidence of depression.[150] More than half the respondents to a 1994 survey of health issues in lesbians reported they had suicidal thoughts, and 18% had attempted suicide.[165]
A population-based study completed by the National Alcohol Research Center found that women who identify as lesbian or bisexual are less likely to abstain from alcohol. Lesbians and bisexual women have a higher likelihood of reporting problems with alcohol, as well as not being satisfied with treatment for substance abuse programs.[166] Many lesbian communities are centered in bars, and drinking is an activity that correlates to community participation for lesbians and bisexual women.[167
Sexuality and lesbians
The presence of sexual activity between women as necessary to define a lesbian or a relationship continues to be debated. According to feminist writer Naomi McCormick, women's sexuality is constructed by men, whose primary indicator of lesbian sexual orientation is sexual experience with other women. The same indicator is not necessary to identify a woman as heterosexual, however. McCormick states that emotional, mental, and ideological connections between women are as important or more so than the genital.[228] Nonetheless, in the 1980s, a significant movement rejected the desexualization of lesbianism by cultural feminists, causing a heated controversy called the Sex Wars.[229] Butch and femme roles returned, although not as strictly followed as they were in the 1950s. They became a mode of chosen sexual self-expression for some women in the 1990s. Once again, women felt safer claiming to be more sexually adventurous, and sexual flexibility became more accepted.[230]
The focus of this debate often centers on a phenomenon named by sexologist Pepper Schwartz in 1983. Schwartz found that long-term lesbian couples report having less sexual contact than heterosexual or homosexual male couples, calling this lesbian bed death. However, lesbians dispute the study's definition of sexual contact, and introduced other factors such as deeper connections existing between women that make frequent sexual relations redundant, greater sexual fluidity in women causing them to move from heterosexual to bisexual to lesbian numerous times through their lives—or reject the labels entirely. Further arguments attested that the study was flawed and misrepresented accurate sexual contact between women, or sexual contact between women has increased since 1983 as many lesbians find themselves freer to sexually express themselves.[231]
More discussion on gender and sexual orientation identity has affected how many women label or view themselves. Most people in western culture are taught that heterosexuality is an innate quality in all people. When a woman realizes her romantic and sexual attraction to another woman, it may cause an "existential crisis"; many who go through this adopt the identity of a lesbian, challenging what society has offered in stereotypes about homosexuals, to learn how to function within a homosexual subculture.[232] Lesbians in Western cultures generally share an identity that parallels those built on ethnicity; they have a shared history and subculture, and similar experiences with discrimination which has caused many lesbians to reject heterosexual principles. This identity is unique from gay men and heterosexual women, and often creates tension with bisexual women.[11] Social theorists note that often behavior and identity do not match: women may label themselves heterosexual but have sexual relations with women, self-identified lesbians may have sex with men, or women may find that what they considered an immutable sexual identity has changed over time. A 2001 article on differentiating lesbians for medical studies and health research suggested identifying lesbians using the three characteristics of identity only, sexual behavior only, or both combined. The article declined to include desire or attraction as it rarely has bearing on measurable health or psychosocial issues
Bisexuality
Bisexuality is sexual behavior with[1] or physical attraction to both sexes (male and female), or a bisexual orientation. People who have a bisexual orientation "can experience sexual, emotional, and affectional attraction to both their own sex and the opposite sex"; "it also refers to an individual’s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions, behaviors expressing them, and membership in a community of others who share them."[2] It is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation, along with a heterosexual and a homosexual orientation. Individuals who lack a strong sexual attraction to either sex are known as asexual.
Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies[3] and elsewhere in the animal kingdom[4][5][6] throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.[7]
Bisexuality in the animal kingdom
Main article: Animal sexuality
Many non-human animal species also exhibit bisexual behavior.[4][5][6] Examples of mammals include the bonobo (formerly known as the pygmy chimpanzee), orca, and bottlenose dolphin. Examples of avians include some species of gulls and Humboldt Penguins. Other examples occur among fish, flatworms, and crustaceans.[50]
Many species of animals are involved in the act of forming sexual and relationship bonds between the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite sex, they picked the same sex. Some of these species are gazelles, antelope, bison, and sage grouse.[51]
In some cases animals will choose intercourse with different sexes at different times in their life, and sometimes will perform intercourse with different sexes at random. Homosexual intercourse can also be seasonal in some animals like male walruses, who often engage in homosexual intercourse with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual intercourse during breeding season.[51]
In some cases bisexuality is actually a form of fitness favored by evolution. For example, in the absence of male whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus), females reproduce by pairing up with each other. During the breeding season females will take turns switching between "male" and "female" roles as their hormones fluctuate. Estrogen levels are high during ovulation ("female" role) and much lower after laying eggs ("male" role). While in the "male" role, a female lizard will mount another in the "female" role and go through the motions of sex to stimulate egg-laying. The hatchlings produced are all female. This all-female species has evolved from lizards with two sexes, but their eggs develop without fertilization (parthenogenesis). Female whiptail lizards can lay eggs without sex, but they lay far fewer eggs than if they engage in sexual stimulation by another female.[52]
Bisexuality in culture
Comparatively positive and notable portrayals of bisexuality can be found throughout mainstream media. In movies such as: The Pillow Book (film); Alexander (film); The Rocky Horror Picture Show; Henry and June; Chasing Amy; Kissing Jessica Stein, The Fourth Man, Basic Instinct and Brokeback Mountain. Especially noteworthy are the bisexual themes in the films of Federico Fellini[citation needed]. While individual films are rarely "bisexual" themselves, he has made films that both employ prominent heterosexual characters and themes La Strada, La Dolce Vita, 8 1/2, and Amarcord and also made blatantly homosexual themed films such as Satyricon and involving homosexual themes and characters in many of his less famous films.
A recent documentary called "Bi the Way" aired on the LGBT tv station Logo on August 1, 2009 and again August 3, 2009, and is also available on Logo online. The movie followed the lives of five young bisexual Americans ages 28 to 11, and talked about bisexuality in general, as well showing scientific studies, interviews with many leaders in the bisexual community, and media portrayals, While some in the bi/pan/fluid community felt the movie stereotyped them, overall it was well received by the community for being a mostly positive portrayal of bi/pan/fluid people, and for bringing their struggles to media attention.
Music
In popular music, many of the songs of The Smiths are commonly cited[citation needed] as classic examples. In 1995, Jill Sobule sung about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl". The video for the song was slightly less subtle alternating images of Jill Sobule and her boyfriend (played by Fabio) with images of her with her girlfriend. The recently popular song "I Kissed a Girl" by Katy Perry also hints at bisexuality, or at least bi-curiosity, with lyrics such as "I kissed a girl just to try it/I hope my boyfriend don't mind it" and "You're my experimental game/Just human nature". Some bisexuals[citation needed] find this song offensive however, as it reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals simply experimenting and bisexuality not being a real sexual preference. Another, considered, offensive lyric is "not the way good girls should behave."
Literature
Virginia Woolf's Orlando: A Biography (1928) is one of the earliest examples of bisexuality in literature. The story about a man who changes into a woman without a second thought, was based on the life of Woolf's then bisexual lover Vita Sackville-West. Woolf used the gender switch to avoid the book being banned for homosexual content, and was successful for it. Prior to Orlando, Woolf's Mrs Dalloway (1925) focused on a bisexual man and a bisexual woman in sexually unfulfilled heterosexual marriages in later life. Following Sackille-West's death, her son Nigel Nicolson would publish Portrait of a Marriage, one of her diaries recounting her affair with a woman during her marriage to Harold Nicolson. Other early examples include works of D.H. Lawrence, such as Women in Love (1920), and Colette's Claudine (1900-1903) series. The main character in Patrick White's novel, The Twyborn Affair (1979), is bisexual. Contemporary novelist Bret Easton Ellis' novels, such as Less Than Zero (1985) and The Rules of Attraction (1987) frequently feature bisexual male characters.
Webseries
As of October 2009, there is a bisexual "webisode" series known as "A Rose By Any Other Name"[53] being released on YouTube that was directed by Independent film director and bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner of Fencesitter Films.[54] The plot of the series centers around a lesbian identified woman who falls in love with a straight man, and goes on to realize she is actually bisexual, and the reaction of both her friends and her boyfriend's friends
Many people ignored that matter and they played a not really small role on slapping the lewd sex instinct among us at any cost even they do post some lewd sex photos and sexual comments .If neccessary ,they tag into us short sex stories or any sex lives on oral references incurred in the relationship in our lives which is known as:"The Net of Sex Players"aterwards being as : "The Net of Sex Citizen".
In the end ,there's gonna mistakes for us to find that is an enormity not to have the second chance as we haven't seen it yet .Lost their chasity ,does it mean as "Lost themselves"reaffirrming renew the hymen which have been aso considered the fake virgin taking by a surgeon.
Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage[1]) is a legally or socially recognized marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender.
Same-sex marriage is a civil rights, political, social, moral, and religious issue in many nations. The conflict arises over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into marriage, be forced to use a different status, such as a civil union, which is usually more limited, or not have any such rights. A related issue is whether the term "marriage" should be applied. [2][3]
Support for same-sex marriage is often based upon what is regarded as a universal human rights issue, mental and physical health concerns, equality before the law,[4] and the goal of normalizing LGBT relationships.[5][6][7]
Opposition to same-sex marriage arises from a refusal to allow the word "marriage" to apply to same-sex couples or objections about the legal and social status itself being applied under any terminology. Other stated reasons include direct and indirect social consequences of same-sex marriages, parenting concerns, religious grounds[8], tradition, and heterosexism. Many supporters of same-sex marriage attribute opposition to it as coming from homophobia [9][10][11][12] and


Effects of same-sex marriage
The American Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association and National Association of Social Workers have stated in an Amicus curiae brief presented to the Supreme Court of the State of California:
Homosexuality is neither a disorder nor a disease, but rather a normal variant of human sexual orientation. The vast majority of gay and lesbian individuals lead happy, healthy, well-adjusted, and productive lives. Many gay and lesbian people are in a committed same-sex relationship. In their essential psychological respects, these relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships. The institution of marriage affords individuals a variety of benefits that have a favorable impact on their physical and psychological well-being. A large number of children are currently being raised by lesbians and gay men, both in same-sex couples and as single parents. Empirical research has consistently shown that lesbian and gay parents do not differ from heterosexuals in their parenting skills, and their children do not show any deficits compared to children raised by heterosexual parents. State policies that bar same-sex couples from marrying are based solely on sexual orientation. As such, they are both a consequence of the stigma historically attached to homosexuality, and a structural manifestation of that stigma. By allowing same-sex couples to marry, the Court would end the antigay stigma imposed by the State of California through its ban on marriage rights for same-sex couples. In addition, allowing same-sex couples to marry would give them access to the social support that already facilitates and strengthens heterosexual marriages, with all of the psychological and physical health benefits associated with that support. In addition, if their parents are allowed to marry, the children of same-sex couples will benefit not only from the legal stability and other familial benefits that marriage provides, but also from elimination of state-sponsored stigmatization of their families. There is no scientific basis for distinguishing between same-sex couples and heterosexual couples with respect to the legal rights, obligations, benefits, and burdens conferred by civil marriage.[83]
Mental health
Recently, several psychological studies[153][154][155] have shown that an increase in exposure to negative conversations and media messages about same-sex marriage creates a harmful environment for the LGBT population that may affect their health and well-being.
Gay activist Jonathan Rauch has argued that marriage is good for all men, whether homosexual or heterosexual, because engaging in its social roles reduces men's aggression and promiscuity.[156][157] After reviewing current psychological and other social science studies on same-sex marriage in comparison to opposite-sex marriage, Gregory M. Herek claims that the data[158] indicate that same-sex and opposite-sex relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent's sexual orientation is unrelated to their ability to provide a healthy and nurturing family environment; and that marriage bestows substantial psychological, social, and health benefits. Herek concludes that same-sex couples and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships.[158]
Physical health
In 2009, a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the US to an increase in the rates of HIV infection.[159][160] The study linked the passage of same-sex marriage ban in a state to an increase in the annual HIV rate within that state of roughly 4 cases per 100,000 population.
Sexual behavior

Human sexual behavior, driven by the desire for pleasure, encompasses the search for a partner or partners, interactions between individuals, physical, emotional intimacy, and sexual contact which may lead to foreplay, masturbation and ultimately orgasm.[26]
Attraction
Sexual attraction is a response to another person, that depends on a combination of the person possessing the traits and also on the criteria of the person experiencing the attraction. Sexual attraction can be heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual etc and there are even individuals who are asexual and have no sexual attraction to others. Sexual attraction may depend on the physical quality, including both looks and movements, of a person but can also be influenced by voice or smell as well as by individual preferences resulting from a variety of genetic, psychological, and cultural factors.
Though attempts have been made to devise objective criteria, a person's sexual attractiveness is to a large extent a subjective measure dependent on another person's interest, perception and sexual orientation as well as on mutual attraction. Interpersonal attraction includes factors such as physical or psychological similarity, familiarity, similarity, complementarity, reciprocal liking, and reinforcement.[27]
Women are believed to be more generally attracted to men who are slightly taller and who have a relatively narrow waist and broad shoulders. Men may be attracted by women who are slightly shorter, have a youthful appearance and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face, full breasts, full lips, and a low waist-hip ratio.[28][29]
Creating a partnership
Several stages are involved here. Depending on the individuals concerned and the society in which they live, they may extend over a considerable period or may be completed quite quickly. They can consist of one or more of the following:
• Flirting: the manner in which an individual gains the attention of another in order to encourage romance or sexual relations by means of body language, conversation, joking or brief physical contact.[30]
• Seduction: the process of one person deliberately enticing another to engage in some sort of human sexual behavior.[31] It can have both positive and negative connotations.
• Dating: the process of arranging meetings or outings with a potential partner with a view to investigating or enhancing their suitability for an intimate partnership.

Creating a partnership
• Courtship: the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage when couples get to know each other better.
• Physical intimacy: usually an expression of feelings such as close friendship or love, including holding hands, hugging, kissing, caressing, often leading to sexual activity.
• Foreplay: leading on from the above, foreplay can include deep tongue kissing, touching and massaging erogenous zones over clothing or rubbing them together, and undressing oneself or partner.
• Mutual masturbation: stimulation of the genitals of one or both partners, usually using the hands, without penetration and sometimes resulting in orgasm.
• Intercourse: the act, sometimes referred to as penetration, in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract with a view to achieving orgasm.
Unconventional practices

Some people derive sexual pleasure from a variety of unconventional practices ranging from fetishism to BDSM.
• Fetishism can take many forms ranging from the desire for certain body parts, for example large breasts, rather than the actual partner. The object of desire is often clothing or rubber items. A fetish can however cause people significant psychosocial distress and can have detrimental effects on their lives, in which case treatment may be required.
• BDSM: a compound acronym covering bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism and masochism.[32] As a rule, one partner dominates the other during an agreed period of time. The parties involved usually experience pleasure although many of the practices performed, such as inflicting pain, humiliation or being restrained would be considered unpleasant under normal circumstances. Oral, anal or vaginal intercourse may occur.


Short of my experiment ,in witness,of which the Sex appeal shall be needed in the Sex location in our lives because of their skills and experiences,.by using the "indigit 'naction" or "Imdistinction Brain",.....will make us possibly agree and accept to sign the Sex Contract under the name of "Model Sex Players" who need or don't need to have to make a surgeon in The Beauty Therapy Service as they are not in self-conscienty because of the stream technology of Creative Sex Film trapping into us ,we can use condom or any other means of safe sex.:"Sperm -bad","sperm well'..This matter shall be entitled to be safe to have a baby as we wish until we have understood it..
Success
Innocent=_______
The God
Life of which pretty=________________
Human _Beings(Love.) in the reality of loves
Education and Occupation:
Architect
An architect is trained and licensed in the planning and designing of buildings, and participates in supervising the construction of a building. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, itself derived from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi-, chief + tekton, builder), i.e. chief builder. [1] A looser usage of Architect is: the translator of the building user's requirements of and from a building into an inhabitable environment. Moreover, the words architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of engineering, e.g. computer software architect; however, in some of the world's jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of these etymologic variants, are legally protected from such loose denotations.
Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, and thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum (or internship) for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. The practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction
Businessperson
A businessman (also businessperson or businesswoman) is someone who is employed at usually a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically, someone who is involved in the management (at any level) of a company, or even an entrepreneur. The term businessperson almost always refers to someone with a "white collar" occupation.
businessman (plural businessmen):a man in business, one who works at a commercial institution


Miss World
The Miss World pageant is the oldest surviving major international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951. Since his death in 2000, Morley's wife, Julia Morley, co-chairs the pageant.[1].
Alongside its rival Miss Universe and Miss Earth contests, this pageant is one of the most publicised beauty contests in the world.[2][3]
The winner spends a year travelling to represent the Miss World Organization and its various causes.[4] Traditionally, Miss World lives in London during her reign. The current Miss World is Kaiane Aldorino of Gibraltar.
History
Miss World started as the Festival Bikini Contest, in honour of the recently introduced swim wear of the time, but was called "Miss World" by the media. It was originally planned as a one-off event. Upon learning about the upcoming Miss Universe pageant, Morley decided to make the pageant an annual event.[5][6]

Opposition to the wearing of bikinis led to their replacement with more modest swim wear after the first contest. In 1959, the BBC started broadcasting the competition. The pageant's popularity grew with the advent of television.[7]
In the 1980s, the pageant repositioned itself with the slogan Beauty With a Purpose, with added tests of intelligence and personality.[8] However, the competition has been seen as old-fashioned and rather politically incorrect in its native Britain. Despite the global appeal, the show was not broadcast on any major terrestrial British TV network for several years, until Channel 5 aired it in 1998.[9][10]
21st Century

The century saw its first black African winner, Agbani Darego, in 2001. As part of its marketing strategy, Miss World came up with a "You Decide" television special during that edition, featuring the delegates behind the scenes and on the beach, and allowing viewers to either phone in or vote online for their favorites. It also sells its Talent, Beach Beauty and Sports events as television specials to broadcasters.[12]
In 2002 the pageant was slated for choosing Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria to host its final. This choice was controversial, as a northern Nigerian woman, Amina Lawal, was awaiting death by stoning for adultery under Sharia law there, but Miss World chose to use the publicity surrounding its presence to bring greater global awareness and action to Amina's plight (see Controversies section).[13][14]
Miss World Organization
The Miss World Organization owns and manages the annual Miss World Finals, a competition that has grown into one of the World’s biggest.[15] Since its launch in 1951, the Miss World Organization has raised more than £250 million for children’s charities.[16] Miss World is franchised in more than 100 countries.[17][18] Miss World, Limited is a privately held firm, and thus figures for its earnings, expenses and charitable contributions are not publicly available.
Aside from raising millions of pounds for charities around the globe under the banner of its 'Beauty with a Purpose' program, Miss World is also credited with directly influencing a dramatic increase in tourism in Sanya, China, host of the Miss World finals from 2003-05.[19]
The Pageant

In the year preceding the global finals, each delegate must win her national title or a specially designated Miss World national preliminary. Miss World's national preliminaries are conducted by their licence-holders, who hold the franchise to use the "Miss World" name in their country. The annual final is typically a month long event, with several preliminary galas, dinners, balls and activities, culminating in a globally telecast final show in which the field is narrowed to between 15-20 delegates.
Since 2003 Miss World pageant also features Fast Track events during the preliminary round. The winners of Fast Track events are automatically qualified to enter the final round. Fast Track events which have been used since 2003 are:
• Beach Beauty (2003-present)
• Miss Talent (2003-present)
• Miss Sports (2003-present)
• Beauty With A Purpose (2005-present)
• Top Model (2004, 2007-present)
• People's Choice (2003)
• Personality (2003)
• Contestant's Choice (2004)
Pupil (disambiguation)
The pupil is the variable-sized, black circular opening in the centre of the iris.
Pupil may also refer to:
• Pupil, another term for a student
• Pupil (band), a Filipino rock band
• Pupil, a trainee Barrister (England and Wales)
• The terms Entrance pupil and Exit pupil are used in optics.
Student
The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb studēre, meaning "to direct one's zeal at"; hence a student could be described as "one who directs zeal at a subject". In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning.

Teacher

In education, a teacher is a person who provides schooling for others. A teacher who facilitates education for an individual student may also be described as a personal tutor. The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out by way of occupation or profession at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher at state-funded schools must first obtain professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college. These professional qualifications may include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching. Teachers may use a lesson plan to facilitate student learning, providing a course of study which covers a standardized curriculum. A teacher's role may vary between cultures. Teachers teach literacy and numeracy, or some of the other school subjects. Other teachers may provide instruction in craftsmanship or vocational training, the Arts, religion or spirituality, civics, community roles, or life skills. In some countries, formal education can take place through home schooling.
Informal learning may be assisted by a teacher occupying a transient or ongoing role, such as a parent or sibling or within a family, or by anyone with knowledge or skills in the wider community setting.
Religious and spiritual teachers, such as gurus, mullahs, rabbis pastors/youth pastors and lamas may teach religious texts such as the Quran, Torah or Bible.


Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for four years, but can range from two to six years depending on the region of the world. It may also be the name of a "postgraduate" degree, such as a Bachelor of Civil Law, the Bachelor of Music, or the Bachelor of Philosophy.

Master's degree

A master's degree is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] Within the area studied, graduates possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation and/or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.[1]
In some languages, a master's degree is called a magister, which is Latin for master (teacher), and magister or a cognate can also be used for a person who has the degree. There are various degrees of the same level, such as engineer's degrees, which have different names for historical reasons. See List of master's degrees.
There has recently been an increase in programs leading to these degrees in the United States; more than twice as many such degrees are now awarded as compared to the 1970s.[2]
Master of Business Administration

The Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a master's degree in business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The MBA designation originated in the United States, emerging from the late 19th century as the country industrialized and companies sought out scientific approaches to management. The core courses in the MBA program are designed to introduce students to the various areas of business such as accounting, marketing, human resources, operations management, etc. Students in the MBA program have the option to select an area of concentration and focus approximately one-third of their studies in this area.
Accreditation bodies exist specifically for MBA programs to ensure consistency and quality of graduate business education, and business schools in many countries offer MBA programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive, and distance learning students, with specialized concentrations.

Doctorate

A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries represents the highest level of formal study or research in a given field. In some countries it also refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to practice in a specific profession, such as law or medicine. The best-known example of the former is the Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), while examples of the latter include the U.S. degree of Doctor of Medicine and the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering.
In some countries, the highest degree in a given field is referred to as a terminal degree, although this is by no means universal (the phrase is not in general use in the U.K., for example), practice varies from country to country, and a distinction is sometimes made between terminal professional degrees (such as the J.D.) and terminal research degrees (such as the LL.D. J.S.D., or S.J.D.).[1]
The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach", shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, meaning "teaching license".[citation needed]
Chief executive officer
A chief executive officer (CEO) or chief executive is one of the highest-ranking corporate officers (executives) or administrators in charge of total management. An individual selected as president and CEO of a corporation, company, organization, or agency, reports to the board of directors.
Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the chief executive officer to align the company, internally and externally, with their strategic vision. The core duty of a CEO is to facilitate business outside of the company while guiding employees and other executive officers towards a central objective. The size and sector of the company will dictate the secondary responsibilities. A CEO must have a balance of internal and external initiatives to build a sustainable company.[1]
• For corporations, the CEO primarily coordinates external initiatives at a high level. As there are many other c-level executives (e.g. marketing, information, technical etc.), seldom do corporate CEOs have low-level functions.
• For emerging entrepreneurs, their acting position as a CEO is much different than that on the corporate level. As often times other c-level executives are not incorporated in small operations, it is the duty of the CEO (and sometimes founder) to assume those positions.
• Mid-sized companies borrow from corporate and entrepreneurial CEO responsibilities. There will not be all c-level positions available so the CEO must compensate for gaps either through delegating or assuming additional responsibility.
According to Don Schmincke, to be a strong executive, "one cannot act in business differently from how he acts in family life or society". Meaning being a successful executive requires a man’s conduct to be “correct in all points”, his actions must follow his words at all times
Chief financial officer

The chief financial officer (CFO) is a corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the corporation. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. In some sectors the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. The title is equivalent to finance director, a common title in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors, and may additionally sit on the board.
Qualifications
Many CFOs are professionally qualified accountants, although it has become commonplace for non-accountants to become CFOs in the United States. Many CFOs have an Master of Business Administration but no qualified accountancy qualification such as Certified Public Accountant status.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, enacted in the aftermath of several major U.S. accounting scandals, requires at least one member of a public company's audit committee to hold an accounting or finance qualification.[1]
Chief operating officer
A chief operating officer or chief operations officer (COO) is a corporate officer responsible for managing the day-to-day activities of the corporation and for operations management (OM). The COO is one of the highest-ranking members of an organization's senior management, monitoring the daily operations of the company and reporting to the board of directors and the top executive officer, usually the chief executive officer (CEO). The COO is usually an executive or senior officer.
The focus of the COO is on operations management, which means he or she is responsible for the development, design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm's products/services. The duties of the COO may reside in certain organizations with a vice president of operations. The COO is responsible for ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective and that proper management of resources, distribution of goods and services to customers, and analysis of queue systems is done.
COOs ideally need to have domain knowledge of the business & industry, understand modern management theories (Total Quality Management, Kaizen), employ process/quality improvement techniques (business process reengineering, Six Sigma) and sometimes quality process standards if required by customers or desired by the company (ISO 9001).
Functions of a C.O.O.:
Marshal limited resources as set out by the chief executive officer and the board of directors to the most productive uses with the aim of creating maximum value for the company's stakeholders.
Lead by developing and cascading the organizations strategy/mission statement to the lower ranking staff, and implementing appropriate rewards/recognition and coaching/corrective practices to align personnel with company goals.
Plan by prioritizing customer, employee and organizational requirements
Maintaining and monitoring staffing, levels, Knowledge-Skills-Attributes (KSA), expectations and motivation to fulfill organizational requirements
Drive performance measures for the measurement of an operation's performance and consideration of efficiency versus effectiveness, often in the form of dashboards convenient for review of high level key indicators.
Staff
Staff may refer to:
• Staff (stick), a stick or pole to assist with walking, or sometimes used as a weapon. Often associated with symbolic qualities as well.
• Staff (building material), artificial stone product used as ornament
• Staff (music), a set of horizontal lines upon which notes are placed in written music notation
• Staff of office, a stick or pole used for ceremony or designating official status
• Staff (military), the organ of military command and planning
• Staff, a set of people, such as the employees or volunteers, within an organization
• Staff (railway signalling), or token, a physical object given to a locomotive driver to authorize him to use a particular stretch of single railway track
• Jacob's staff, a tool used in surveying
• Quarterstaff, a long pole used as a Medieval weapon
• Bō, a long stick used as a weapon, usually in Japanese martial arts
• Leopold Staff (1878–1957), a Polish poet
• Gun (staff), a weapon in Chinese martial arts
• Level staff, also called levelling rod, is a graduated rod
• Staff, a nickname for the Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Staff as an acronym may refer to:
• Smart Target-Activated Fire and Forget (XM943 STAFF), an American-made experimental 120mm tank gun shell
Staves is a plural noun form of staff; however when used in the singular sense, stave may also mean:
• a single musical staff
• a curved wooden member which is used with others to form the side of a barrel
Employer
An employer is a person or institution that hires employees or workers. Employers offer hourly wages or a salary in exchange for the worker's labor power, depending upon whether the employee is paid by the hour or a set rate per pay period. A salaried employee is typically not paid more for more hours worked than the minimum, whereas wages are paid for all hours worked, including overtime.
Employers include individuals hiring a babysitter to governments and businesses which may hire many thousands of employees. In most western societies, governments are the largest single employers but most of the work force is employed in small and medium businesses in the private sector.
Although employees may contribute to an enterprise, the employer maintains control over the productive base of land and capital, and is the entity named in contracts. The employer typically maintains ownership of intellectual property created by an employee within the scope of employment and as a function thereof. These inventions or creations become the property of the employer based on a concept known as "works for hire".
An employers’ relative level of power over employees is dependent upon numerous factors; the most influential being the nature of the employment relationship. The relationship employers share with employees is affected by three significant factors – interests, control and motivation. It is up to employers to effectively manage and balance these factors to ensure a harmonious and productive working relationship.
Interests can be best described as monetary constraints and economic pressures placed on organizations in their pursuit of profits. It covers facets such as labour productivity, wages and the effect of financial markets on businesses.
Wood et al. (2004, p 355) describe control as being either output focused, focusing on desired targets with managers defining, and using, their own methods for reaching targets, or process controls, which specify the manner in which tasks will be achieved (Ibid, p. 357). Employer and managerial control within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between desired outcomes and actual processes. Employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labour productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship.
Motivation is the third and most difficult of the factors for employers to effectively manage in the employment relationship . Employee motivation can often be in direct conflict with control mechanisms of employers, and can be broadly defined as that which energizes, directs and sustains human behaviour ( Stone, 2005, p 412). Dubin (1958, p 213) further elaborates on this, noting motivation as “something that moves a person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.”
The employment relationship is thus a difficult challenge for employers to manage, as all three facets are often in direct competition with each other, with interests, control and motivation often clashing in the equally important quest for individual employee autonomy, employer command and control and ultimate profits.

Employee
An employee may be defined as: "A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.
An employee contributes labor and expertise to an endeavour. Employees perform the discrete activity of economic production. Of the three factors of production, employees usually provide the labor.
Specifically, an employee is any person hired by an employer to do a specific "job". In most modern economies, the term employee refers to a specific defined relationship between an individual and a corporation, which differs from those of customer, or client.
Becoming an employee
Most individuals attain the status of employee after a job interview with a company. If the individual is determined to be a satisfactory fit for the position, he or she is given an official offer of employment within that company for a defined starting salary and position. This individual then has all the rights and privileges of an employee, which may include medical benefits and vacation days. The relationship between a corporation and its employees is usually handled through the human resources department, which handles the incorporation of new hires, and the disbursement of any benefits which the employee may be entitled, or any grievances that employee may have.


Manager
Manager may refer to:
• Anyone who uses management skills or holds the organizational title of "manager"
• A manager of a department in an organization
• A manager of a division (business)
• General manager, for managing both the revenue and cost elements of an organization
• Project manager, for individual projects
• Manager (baseball), coach of a baseball team
• Manager (football), for association football
• Coach (sport), in other sports
• Manager (professional wrestling), a fictional character
• Talent manager
Titles
• Manager Daily, a Thai newspaper
• Manager (Gaelic games), coach of a Gaelic football team
• Manager (Mac OS), a component of the Mac OS operating system
• Manager (Mac OS), a component of the Mac OS operating system

General manager
General manager (sometimes abbreviated GM) is a descriptive term for certain executives in a business operation. It is also a formal title held by some business executives, most commonly in the hospitality industry.
Industry-specific usages
Hotels
In hotels, the General Manager is the executive manager responsible for the overall operation of a hotel establishment. The General Manager holds ultimate authority over the hotel operation and usually reports directly to a corporate office or hotel owner. Common duties of a General Manager include hiring and management of a management team, overall management of hotel staff, budgeting and financial management, creating and enforcing business objectives and goals, managing projects and renovations, management of emergencies and other major issues involving guests, employees, or the facility, public relations with the media, local governments, and other businesses, and many additional duties. The extent of duties of a hotel General Manager vary significantly depending on the size of the hotel and company; for example, General Managers of smaller hotels may have additional duties such as accounting, human resources, payroll, purchasing, and other duties that would usually be handled by other managers or departments in a larger hotel.
Sports teams
In most professional sports, the general manager is a team executive responsible for acquiring the rights to player personnel, negotiating their contracts, and reassigning or dismissing players no longer desired on the team. The general manager may also have responsibility for hiring the head coach of the team.
For many years in U.S. professional sports, coaches often served as general managers for their teams as well, deciding which players would be kept on the team and which ones dismissed, and even negotiating the terms of their contracts in cooperation with the ownership of the team. In fact, many sports teams in the early years of U.S. professional sports were coached by the owner of the team, so in some cases the same individual served as owner, general manager and head coach.
As the amount of money involved in professional sports increased, many prominent players began to hire agents to negotiate contracts on their behalf. The intensified contract negotiations that resulted, as well as the overall increased need for professional business management, drove many sports teams to separate the positions of coach and general manager. Some coaches, however, still insist on being allowed to fill both positions as a condition of employment.
In some sports leagues salary caps have been adopted to maintain a competitive balance and in these leagues it is one of the functions of the general manager to ensure all player contracts are in accordance with these caps, as well as consistent with the desires of the ownership and its ability to pay.
General managers are usually responsible for the selection of players in player drafts and work with the coaching staff and scouts to build a strong team. In sports with developmental or minor leagues, the general manager is usually the team executive with the overall responsibility for "sending down" and "calling up" players to and from these leagues, although the head coach may also have significant input into these decisions.
Some of the most successful sports general managers have been former players and coaches, while others have backgrounds in ownership and business management.
The term is not commonly used in Europe, especially in soccer, where the position of manager or coach is used instead to refer to the managing/coaching position. The position of director of football might be the most similar position on many European football clubs.


Police officer

A police officer (also known as a policeman or policewoman and sometimes constable, particularly in Australia) is a warranted employee of a police force. Police officers are generally responsible for apprehending criminals, maintaining public order, and preventing and detecting crime. Police officers are sworn to an oath, and are granted the power to arrest and imprison suspects, along with other practices.
Some police officers may also be trained in special duties such as; counter-terrorism, surveillance, child protection, VIP protection, and investigation techniques into major crime, such as fraud, rape, murder or drug trafficking.\
Monk

A monk (Greek: μοναχός, monachos) is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, whilst always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy.
In the Greek language the term can apply to men or women; but in modern English it is in use only for men, while nun is used for female monastics.
Although the term monachos (“monk”) is of Christian origin, in the English language it tends to be used analogously or loosely also for ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds.
The term monk is generic and in some religious or philosophical traditions it therefore may be considered interchangeable with other terms such as ascetic. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, hermit, anchorite, hesychast, solitary.

The first famous Christian known to adopt the life in a desert was St. Anthony the Great (251-356). Anthony lived alone as an anchorite in the Egyptian desert until he attracted a circle of followers, after which he retired further into the desert to escape the adulation of men. He is said[by whom?] to have been the first to go out into the desert for the sole purpose of pursuing God in solitude.(It was a young jew who went out to the desert for the soul purpose of seeking God). As the idea of devoting one's entire life to God grew, more and more monks joined him, even in the far desert. Under St. Anthony's system, they each lived in isolation. Later, loose-knit communities began to be formed, coming together only on Sundays and major feast days for Holy Communion. The concept of monks all living together under one roof and under the rule of a single person — that is, monasticism as such — is attributed to St Pachomius (c. 292-348). At this same time, St. Pachomius' sister became the first woman to lead a monastery of women, or convent. Christian monasticism spread throughout the Eastern Roman Empire. At its height it was not uncommon for monasteries to house upwards of 30,000 monks.
As Christianity grew and diversified, so did the style of monasticism. In the East, monastic norms came to be regular. Monasticism came to be accepted in the West as well. In the beginning, Western monasticism followed much the same pattern as its Eastern forebears, but over time the traditions diversified.

Waiting staff
Waiting staff, wait staff, or waitstaff[1] are those who work at a restaurant or a bar attending customers — supplying them with food and drink as requested. Traditionally, a male waiting tables is called a "waiter" and a female a "waitress." Some people prefer to use gender-neutral language, using waiter indiscriminately for males and females, server,[2], waitperson,[3], or waitron, an Americanism coined in the 1980s.[4]
Waiting staff may also be employed in (mainly, large) private households, but there such specialization is rarer, with the general domestic staff performing the function of waiting staff.
Waiting on tables is (along with nursing and teaching) part of the service sector, and among the most common occupations in the United States. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that, as of May As of 2005[update], there were over 2.2 million persons employed as servers in the U.S.[5]
Many servers are required by their employers to wear a uniform
Receptionist
A receptionist is a person in an office/administrative support position. The work is usually performed in a waiting area such as a lobby or front office desk of an organization or business. The title "receptionist" is attributed to the person who is specifically employed by an organization to greet any visitors, patients, or clients.
A receptionist is usually expected to have a high school diploma or the equivalent, but a receptionist may also possess a vocational certificate/diploma in business and office administration. Although a post secondary degree is not normally required for this position, some receptionists may hold four year university degrees in a variety of majors. Some receptionists may even hold advanced degrees.
The business duties of a receptionist may include: answering visitor inquiries about a company and its products or services, directing visitors to their destinations, sorting and handing out mail, answering incoming calls on multi-line telephones or, earlier in the 20th century, a switchboard, setting appointments, filing, records keeping, keyboarding/data entry and performing a variety of other office tasks, such as faxing or emailing. Some receptionists may also perform bookkeeping or cashiering duties. Some, but not all, offices may expect the receptionist to serve coffee or tea to guests, and to keep the lobby area tidy.
A receptionist may also assume some security guard access control functions for an organization by verifying employee identification, issuing visitor passes, and by observing and reporting any unusual or suspicious persons or activities.
A receptionist is often the first business contact a person will meet at any organization. It is an expectation of most organizations that the receptionist maintain a calm, courteous and professional demeanor at all times regardless of the visitor's behavior. Some personal qualities that a receptionist is expected to have in order to do the job successfully include: attentiveness, a well groomed appearance, initiative, loyalty, maturity, respect for confidentiality and discretion, a positive attitude and dependability. At times, the job may be stressful due to interaction with many different people with different types of personalities, and being expected to perform multiple tasks quickly.
Depending upon the industry, a receptionist position can be considered a low-ranking, dead end or servile position, or it could be perceived as having a certain veneer of glamor with opportunities for networking in order to advance to other positions within a specific field. Some people may use this type of job as a way to familiarize oneself with office work, or to learn of other functions or positions within a corporation. Some people use receptionist work as a way to earn money while pursuing further educational opportunities or other career interests such as in the performing arts or as writers.
While many persons working as receptionists continue in that position throughout their careers, some receptionists may advance to other administrative jobs such as customer service representative, dispatcher, interviewers, secretary, production assistant, personal assistant, marketing and executive assistant. In smaller businesses, such as a doctor's or lawyer's office, a receptionist may also be the office manager who is charged with a diversity of middle management level business operations. For example, in the hotel industry, the night-time receptionist role is almost always combined with a performing daily account consolidation and reporting, known as night auditing.
When receptionists leave the job, they often enter other career fields such as sales and marketing, public relations or other media occupations.
A few famous people were receptionists in the beginning, such as Betty Williams, a co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Peace Prize. A number of celebrities had worked as receptionists before they became famous, such as singer/songwriter Naomi Judd and the late entrepreneur/Beatle wife Linda McCartney[1]. Other famous people who began their careers as receptionists or worked in the field include civil rights activist Rosa Parks and former Hewlett Packard CEO Carly Fiorina.
The advancement of office automation has eliminated some receptionists' jobs. For example, a telephone call could be answered by an Automated attendant. However, a receptionist who possesses strong office/technical skills and who is also adept in courtesy, tact and diplomacy is still considered an asset to a company's business image, and is still very much in demand in the business world.


Footballer
A footballer is a person who plays in various games known as "football" – especially association football,[citation needed] although the term is also used to refer to participants in Australian rules football, Gaelic football, rugby league and rugby union in some regions.
In North America, one who plays American and Canadian football is called a "football player" while one who participates in association football is usually referred to as a "soccer player". Australians may also refer to a footballer as "footy player".
Model (person)

A model (from Middle French modèle)[1], sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed for the purpose of displaying and promoting fashion clothing or other products and for advertising or promotional purposes or who poses for works of art.
Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is not considered modeling. However, models express emotion in their photographs, and many describe themselves as actors. Models are generally not expected to verbally express themselves unless to visually enhance a photograph.
Types of models include fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, and body-part models.
Not all models are considered "beautiful": character models portray ordinary people and humorous types, mostly in print work and in commercials. Photo manipulation and cosmetic surgery also enable people with body imperfections to model and change their looks to suit a certain role. Many high fashion models have "quirky" attributes and memorably unusual faces. High end brands often use these unusual faces as people are likely to remember their brand name and associate it with an interesting face.
Various representations of beauty and fashion using models have caused controversy and is known to have some social impact, particularly on young people - both male and female.
Male models receive overall less publicity and are often paid less.
Singing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Sings" redirects here. For other uses, see Sings (disambiguation).
"Singer" redirects here. For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation).
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of both tonality and rhythm. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist. Singers perform music known as songs that can either be sung a cappella (without accompaniment) or accompanied by musicians and instruments ranging from a single instrumentalist to a full symphony orchestra or big band. Singing is often done in a group of other musicians, such as in a choir of singers with different voice ranges, or in an ensemble with instrumentalists, such as a rock group or baroque ensemble. Nearly anyone who can speak can sing, since singing resembles sustained speech.
Singing can be informal and done for pleasure; for example, singing in the shower or karaoke; or it can be very formal, as in the case of singing during a religious ritual such as a Mass or professional singing performances done on stage or in a recording studio. Singing at a high amateur or professional level usually requires innate talent, instruction, and regular practice.[1] Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as Classical or rock, they typically take voice training provided by a voice teacher or vocal coach throughout their career.
Scientist

Scientists working in a laboratory
A scientist, in the broadest sense, is any person who engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method.[1] The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science.[2] This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word.

Nurse

A nurse is a healthcare professional who, in collaboration with other members of a health care team, is responsible for: treatment, safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill individuals; health promotion and maintenance within families, communities and populations; and, treatment of life-threatening emergencies in a wide range of health care settings. Nurses perform a wide range of clinical and non-clinical functions necessary to the delivery of health care, and may also be involved in medical and nursing research.
Nursing roles and education were first defined by Florence Nightingale, following her experiences caring for the wounded in the Crimean War.[1] Prior to this, nursing was thought to be a trade with few common practices or documented standards. Nightingale's concepts were used as a guide for establishing nursing schools at the beginning of the twentieth century, which were mostly hospital-based training programs emphasizing the development of a set of clinical skills.[1] The profession's early utilization of a general, hospital-based education is sometimes credited for the wide range of roles nurses have assumed within health-care, and is contrasted with present-day nursing education, which is increasingly specialized and typically offered at post-secondary institutions.[2]
Practice as a nurse is often defined by state, provincial or territorial governments. As an example, the province of Ontario classifies nurses into the roles of Registered Practical Nurse, Registered Nurse (general class), and Registered Nurse (extended class).[3] In this respect, the title "nurse" is protected by law within the province, and regulated by legislative statute.[3] Some regions have legislated different or expanded roles for nurses, generating many potential nurse careers.
Around the world, nurses are often female. However, in Francophone Africa, which includes the countries of Benin, Burkino Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Guinea, Gabon, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, and Togo, there are more male than female nurses.[4] In Europe, in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and Italy, over 20% of nurses are male.[4]
Currently, a nursing shortage exists within the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and a number of other developed countries.[5] The majority of analysis refers to a shortage of Registered Nurse staff.[5] The Canadian Registered Nurse shortage has been linked to longer wait times for hospital-based procedures, increased adverse events for patients, and more stressful work environments.[6] As the shortage of Registered Nurses increases, it is expected that there will be an increasing move towards utilizing unregulated healthcare workers to meet demands for basic nursing care within hospitals and the community.[7]
Trader (finance)
In finance, a trader is someone who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds and derivatives. A broker who simply fills buy or sell orders is not a trader, as they are merely executing instructions given to them.
Traders are either professionals working in a financial institution or a corporation, or individual investors, or day traders. They buy and sell financial instruments traded in the stock markets, derivatives markets and commodity markets, comprising the stock exchanges, derivatives exchanges and the commodities exchanges. Several categories and designations for diverse kinds of traders are found in finance, these may include:
• stock trader
• day trader
• pattern day trader
• swing trader
• floor trader
• rogue trader



Sales
"Salesman" redirects here. For the 1969 American documentary film, see Salesman (film).
/wiki/File:Preisschild_Modernes_Antiquariat.pngA price tag for a product on sale.
A sale is the pinnacle activity involved in selling products or services in return for money or other compensation. It is an act of completion of a commercial activity
A sale is completed by the seller or the owner of the goods. It starts with consent (or agreement) to an acquisition or appropriation or request followed by the passing of title (property or ownership) in the item and the application and due settlement of a price, the douche of or any claim upon the item. The purchaser, though a party to the sale, does not execute the sale, only the seller does that. To be precise the sale completes prior to the payment and gives rise to the obligation of payment. If the seller completes the first two above stages (consent and passing ownership) of the sale prior to settlement of the price, the sale is still valid and gives rise to an obligation to pay.
Buyer

A buyer is any person who contracts to acquire an asset in return for some form of consideration.
When someone gets characterised by their role as buyer of certain assets, the term "buyer" gets new meaning:
A "buyer" or merchandiser is a person who purchases finished goods, typically for resale, for a firm, government, or organization. (A person who purchases material used to make goods is sometimes called a purchasing agent.)
In product management, buyer is the entity that decides to obtain the product.
A buyer's primary responsibility is obtaining the highest quality goods at the lowest cost. This usually requires research, writing requests for bids, proposals or quotes, and evaluation information received.
Supplier
Supplier may refer to:
• Manufacturer, uses tools and labor to make things for sale
• Processor (manufacturing), converts a product from one form to another
• Packager (manufacturing), encloses products for distribution, storage, sale, and use
• Distributor (business), the middleman between the manufacturer and retailer
• Wholesaler, sells goods or merchandise to retailers
• Franchised dealership, local franchised distribution
• Drug dealer, supplies illegal drugs
• Merchant, a professional dealing with trade
• Supplier (song), a song by Shawty Lo that features singer Trey Songz and Lil Wayne
Distributor
A distributor is a device in the ignition system of an internal combustion engine that routes high voltage from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the correct firing order. The first reliable battery operated ignition was developed by Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co. (Delco) and introduced in the 1910 Cadillac. This ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was considered a wonder in its day.
Processor
Processor may refer to:
Computing
• Central processing unit (CPU), an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs
• Microprocessor, a CPU on one chip as part of a microcomputer
• Graphics processing unit (GPU / VPU), a dedicated graphics rendering device for a personal computer or game console
• Physics processing unit (PPU), a dedicated microprocessor designed to handle the calculations of physics
• Digital signal processor, a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing
• Network processor, a microprocessor specifically targeted at the networking application domain
• Front end processor, a helper processor for communication between a host computer and other devices
• Coprocessor
• Floating point unit
• Data processor, a system that translates or converts between different data formats
• Word processor, a computer application used for the production of printable material
• Audio processor, used in studios and radio stations
Other uses
• Food processor, a machine for preparing food



Wholesale
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.[1]
According to the United Nations Statistics Division, "wholesale" is the resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional or professional users, or to other wholesalers, or involves acting as an agent or broker in buying merchandise for, or selling merchandise to, such persons or companies. Wholesalers frequently physically assemble, sort and grade goods in large lots, break bulk, repack and redistribute in smaller lots.[2] While wholesalers of most products usually operate from independent premises, wholesale marketing for foodstuffs can take place at specific wholesale markets where all traders are congregated.
Traditionally wholesalers were closer to the markets they supplied than the source they got the products from.[3].
However, with the advent of the internet and E-procurement there are an increasing number of wholesalers located nearer manufacturing bases in Mainland China, Taiwan and South East Asia like Chinavasion, Salehoo and Modbom, many of which offer drop shipping services to companies and individuals[4].

Retailing
Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser.[1] Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be individuals or businesses. In commerce, a "retailer" buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. Retail establishments are often called shops or stores. Retailers are at the end of the supply chain. Manufacturing marketers see the process of retailing as a necessary part of their overall distribution strategy. The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as a public utility, like electric power.
Shops may be on residential streets, shopping streets with few or no houses or in a shopping mall. Shopping streets may be for pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to protect customers from precipitation. Online retailing, a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions and mail order, are forms of non-shop retailing.
Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it is done as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping (just looking, not buying) and browsing and does not always result in a purchase.
Accountancy
Accountancy or accounting is the art of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management.[1]
Accounting is thousands of years old. The earliest accounting records were found in the Middle East which date back more than 7,000 years. The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds. Accounting evolved, improving over the years and advancing as business advanced.[2]
Early accounts served mainly to assist the memory of the businessperson and the audience for the account was the proprietor or record keeper alone. Cruder forms of accounting were inadequate for the problems created by a business entity involving multiple investors, so double-entry bookkeeping first emerged in northern Italy in the 14th century, where trading ventures began to require more capital than a single individual was able to invest. The development of joint stock companies created wider audiences for accounts, as investors without firsthand knowledge of their operations relied on accounts to provide the requisite information.[3] This development resulted in a split of accounting systems for internal (i.e. management accounting) and external (i.e. financial accounting) purposes, and subsequently also in accounting and disclosure regulations and a growing need for independent attestation of external accounts by auditors.[4]
Today, accounting is called "the language of business" because it is the vehicle for reporting financial information about a business entity to many different groups of people. Accounting that concentrates on reporting to people inside the business entity is called management accounting and is used to provide information to employees, managers, owner-managers and auditors. Management accounting is concerned primarily with providing a basis for making management or operating decisions. Accounting that provides information to people outside the business entity is called financial accounting and provides information to present and potential shareholders, creditors such as banks or vendors, financial analysts, economists, and government agencies. Because these users have different needs, the presentation of financial accounts is very structured and subject to many more rules than management accounting. The body of rules that governs financial accounting is called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP.[5]
Accounting has also been defined by the AICPA as "The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof."[6

Accountant
An Accountant is a practitioner of accountancy, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers make resource allocation decisions.
The word "Accountant" is derived from the French word 'Compter' which took its origin from the Latin word 'Computare'. The word was formerly written in English as "Accomptant", but in process of time the word, which was always pronounced by dropping the "p", became gradually changed both in pronunciation and in orthography to its present form.[1]
The Big Four are the largest employers of accountants worldwide.

Professor
The meaning of the word professor (Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science, teacher of highest rank[1]) varies. In some English-speaking countries, it refers to a senior academic who holds a departmental chair, especially as head of the department, or a personal chair awarded specifically to that individual. For example, in the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, United States, Canada, and Hong Kong it is a legal title conferred by a university denoting the highest academic rank. However, in some institutions, the term is used only for academics who are tenured or tenure-track. In some countries, e.g. Austria, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Croatia, France, Italy, Panama, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain the term is an honorific applied also to secondary level teachers.
Professors are qualified experts, of the various levels described above, who may do the following:
• conduct lectures and seminars in their field of study (i.e., they "profess"), such as the basic fields of science, humanities, social sciences, education, literature, music or the applied fields of engineering, design, medicine, law, or business;
• perform advanced research in their fields.
• provide pro bono community service, including consulting functions (such as advising government and nonprofit organizations);
• teach campus-based or online courses with the help of instructional technology;
• train young or new academics (graduate students);
• carry out administrative or managerial functions, usually at a high level (e.g. deans, heads of department, librarians, etc.).
The balance of these six fields of professorial tasks depends heavily on the institution, place (country), and time. For example, professors at highly research-oriented universities in the U.S., and Canada, and, as a general rule, in European universities, are promoted primarily on the basis of their research achievements as well as their success in raising money from sources outside the university
Knowledge worker
A knowledge worker in today's workforce is an individual that is valued for their ability to interpret information within a specific subject area. They will often advance the overall understanding of that subject through focused analysis, design and/or development. They use research skills to define problems and to identify alternatives. Fueled by their expertise and insight, they work to solve those problems, in an effort to influence company decisions, priorities and strategies.
Knowledge workers may be found across a variety of information technology roles, but also among professionals like teachers, lawyers, architects, physicians, nurses, engineers and scientists. As businesses increase their dependence on information technology, the number of fields in which knowledge workers must operate has expanded dramatically.

Secretary
A secretary is an administrative assistant in business office administration.
The executive secretary (sometimes called administrative assistant or associate) has a myriad of administrative duties. Traditionally, these duties were mostly related to correspondence, such as the typing out of letters. The advent of word processing has significantly reduced the time that such duties require, with the result that many new tasks have come under the purview of the secretary. These might include managing budgets and doing bookkeeping, maintaining websites, and making travel arrangements. Secretaries might manage all the administrative details of running a high level conference or arrange the catering for a typical lunch meeting. Often executives will ask their assistant to take meeting minutes and prepare meeting documents for review. They may also do personnel paperwork which used to be thought of as a Human Relations function; this might also include understanding the complex rules regarding Visa and Immigration.
To be successful today the executive assistant must have a broad level of skills and be creative in managing new situations. As such a 4 year degree (Bachelors of Arts) is often preferred and a 2 year degree is usually a requirement.


Supplier

Supplier may refer to:
• Manufacturer, uses tools and labor to make things for sale
• Processor (manufacturing), converts a product from one form to another
• Packager (manufacturing), encloses products for distribution, storage, sale, and use
• Distributor (business), the middleman between the manufacturer and retailer
• Wholesaler, sells goods or merchandise to retailers
• Franchised dealership, local franchised distribution
• Drug dealer, supplies illegal drugs
• Merchant, a professional dealing with trade
• Supplier (song), a song by Shawty Lo that features singer Trey Songz and Lil Wayne
Engineer
Engineers work to develop economical and safe solutions to practical problems, by applying mathematics and scientific knowledge while considering technical constraints.The term is derived from the Latin root "ingenium," meaning "cleverness".[3] The industrial revolution and continuing technological developments of the last few centuries have changed the connotation of the term slightly, resulting in the perception of engineers as applied scientists. The work of engineers is the link between perceived needs of society and commercial applications.
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or inventions.
The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET[]) has defined engineering as follows:“[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.”
One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, or European Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.
Laborer
One of the construction trades, traditionally considered unskilled manual labor (as opposed to skilled labor).[clarification needed] In the division of labor, laborers have all blasting, hand tools, power tools, air tools, and small heavy equipment, and act as assistants to other trades,[1] e.g., operators or cement masons. The first century BC engineer Vitruvius writes in detail about laborer practices at that time. In his experience a good crew of laborers is just as valuable as any other aspect of construction. Other than the addition of pneumatics, laborer practices have changed little. With the advent of advanced technology and its introduction into the construction field, the laborers have been quick to include much of this technology as being laborers work.


Network
Network may refer to:
• Network science
• Network (mathematics), a type of digraph in graph theory
• Network theory, an area of applied mathematics and part of graph theory
• Network analysis (electrical circuits)
• Network diagram, a diagram of a network
• Network model, a database model
Names
• Network (film), a 1976 Oscar-winning movie
• NETWORK (lobbying group), an American social justice group
• The Network, an American New Wave band
• Network DVD, a British publisher
• Network (comics), a series of Marvel characters
Officer
officer is:
One who has a position of authority in a hierarchical organization, especially in military, police or government organizations.
One who holds a public office.
An agent or servant imparted with the ability, to some degree, to act on initiative.
(colloquial, military) A simple contraction of the term "commissioned officer."

Officer may refer to:
Military
• Officer (armed forces)
Law enforcement
• Corrections officer
• Customs officer
• Officer of the court
• Parking enforcement officer
• Probation officer/Parole officer
• Law enforcement officer (Peace officer)
• Police officer
• Probation officer
Politics and government
• Chief Medical Officer
• Presiding Officer
• Returning Officer
Ceremonial and other contexts
• Bank officer
• Chief academic officer (provost)
• Corporate officer, a corporate title
• First officer
• Great Officer of State
• Merchant marine officer or licensed mariner
• Officer of arms
• Officer, a grade, class, or rank of the Order of the British Empire, National Order of the Cedar, Légion d'honneur
• Officer of The Salvation Army, and other state decorations
• Sabbatical officer
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content.
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as websites, blogs, video games and the like.
Publishing includes: the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.
Publication is also important as a legal concept: (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published, and (3) for copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works.
Director
director is
One who directs; the person in charge of managing a department or directorate (e.g., director of engineering), project, or production (as in a show or film, e.g., film director).
A device that displays graphical information concerning the targets of a weapons system in real time.
(chemistry) The common axis of symmetry of the molecules of a liquid crystal.

Arts
• Animation director
• Artistic director, a theatre management position
• Casting director
• Choral director
• Creative director
• Director of audiography, or sound director, the person responsible for the sound in a production
• Film director, the person responsible for orchestrating the artistic and dramatic aspects of a film
• Video game director, the person in charge of significant creative aspects of a video game
• Museum director, or curator
• Music director
• Music video director, a film director that specializes in supervising the filming and editing of music videos
• Sports director, an individual at a television or radio station who is in charge of the sports department
• Technical director, the most senior technical person within a theatrical company or television studio
• Television director, a person who directs the activities involved in making a television episode
• Theatre director, or more specific such as Opera director
Business
• a member of a board of directors, a group of managers of a company
• Director-general
• Executive director
• Finance director, or chief financial officer
• Funeral director, someone involved in the business of funeral rites
• Managing director
• Non-executive director
• Director may also be the title of a mid-level management position
Other
• a member or sole head of a directorate
• Director (colonial), head of chartered company's colonial administration in a territory
• Director (education), head of a university or other educational body
• Director (military), a device that continuously calculates firing data
• Tournament director, for sporting events
• Adobe Director, multimedia authoring software
• Director string, a way of tracking free variables in computation.
• Director (band), an Irish rock band from Malahide
• Director, the spatial and temporal average of the orientation of the long molecular axis within a small volume element of liquid crystal
• The Director is the name of a complex artificial intelligence system used in Left 4 Dead
• HMS Director (1784)
Works
• Director (album), an album by Avant
• The Director (film), an Australian film
• The Director, a novel by Henry Denker
Director-general
The term director-general is used worldwide to signify the highest executive officer within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution. In the European Commission, each department (called a Directorate-General) is headed by a non-political Director-General. This is roughly equivalent to a British Permanent Secretary.
Chairman
The chairman is the highest office of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion.[1] When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often including acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson.

Doctor
doctor (plural doctors)
A person who has attained a doctorate, such as a Ph.D. or Th.D. or one of many other terminal degrees conferred by a college or university.
A physician; a member of the medical profession; one who is trained and licensed to heal the sick. The final examination and qualification may award a doctorate in which case the post-nominal letters are MD in the US or MBBS in the UK.
If you still feel unwell tomorrow, go see your doctor.
A veterinarian; a member of the medical profession; one who is trained and licensed to heal the sick.
A nickname for a person who has special knowledge or talents to manipulate or arrange transactions
Doctor may refer to:
Title
• Doctor (title), a title accorded to someone who has received a doctorate degree
• Doctor of the Church, a title granted by several Christian churches
Healthcare
• Physician, a medical doctor
• Dentist, a dental doctor
• Veterinarian, a veterinary doctor
• Optometrist, an optometric doctor
• Chiropractor, a chiropractic doctor
• Podiatrist, a podiatric doctor
• Psychologist, a psychology doctor
• Physical therapist, a physical therapy doctor
People named or nicknamed Doctor
• Julius Erving (b. 1950), American basketball player
• W. G. Grace (1848–1915), English cricketer
• Doctor Greenwood (1860–1951), English footballer
• Doctor Khumalo (b. 1967), South African footballer
• Lindsay McDougall, Australian radio host
• Valentino Rossi (b. 1979), Italian motorcycle racer
• Dwight Gooden (b. 1964), American baseball player
• Dr. John (b. 1940), American singer/songwriter, pianist and guitarist
• Andre Dr. Dre Young(b. 1965), American Hip Hop Artist/Producer/Actor
Fictional characters
• Doctor (Doctor Who)
• Doctor (Hellsing)
• Doctor (Star Trek)
• Doctor (YuYu Hakusho)
• Doctor (Wildstorm)
• Il Dottore (The Doctor), a commedia dell'arte stock character
• Fuyuhiko Date ("The Doctor"), a character in the video game Cave Story
• "The Doctor", a character also known as Cobra Commander in G.I. Joe: Rise of Cobra
Film and television
• The Doctor (film)
• The Doctor (1952 TV series), a 1951–1952 NBC nonfiction series
• The Doctors (1963 TV series), a 1963–1982 NBC soap opera
• The Doctors (1969 TV series), a 1969–1971 BBC medical drama
• Doctors (2000 TV series), a BBC soap opera
• The Doctors (2008 TV series), an American syndicated health-related talk show
Music
• Doctor (band)
• The Doctor (Cheap Trick album)
• The Doctor (Beenie Man album)
• The Doctor (Thomas Nöla et son Orchestre album)
• "The Doctor" (Mary Wells song)
• "The Doctor" (Doobie Brothers song)
• The Doctor, lead singer of the band Doctor and the Medics
• Byron "Doctor" Jones, Composer, SAC-Sacramento Artist Coalition founder
Other uses
• Doctor (comics)
• DOCTER (optics), a German manufacturer of sports optics
• Doctors (novel), by Erich Segal
• "The Doctor", a painting by Luke Fildes
• The Fremantle Doctor
Fortune-telling
"Fortune teller" redirects here. For other uses, see Fortune teller (disambiguation).
Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting the life, usually of a group, through mystical or natural means, and often for commercial gain. It is often conflated with the religious practice known as divination.

Physician

A physician — also known as medical practitioner, doctor of medicine, medical doctor, or simply doctor — practices the ancient profession of medicine, which is concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease or injury. This properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology) underlying diseases and their treatment — the science of medicine — and also a decent competence in its applied practice — the art or craft of medicine.
Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary significantly around the world, but as generally understood, the ethics of medicine require that physicians show consideration, compassion and benevolence for their patients.
Characteristic
characteristic is:
a distinguishable feature of a person or thing
(mathematics) the integer part of a logarithm
(nautical) the distinguishing features of a navigational light on a lighthouse etc by which it can be identified (colour, pattern of flashes etc)

Characteristic (from the Greek word for a property or attribute (= trait) of an entity[citation needed]) may refer to:
In physics and engineering:
• Any characteristic curve that shows the relationship between certain input and output parameters, e.g.
• An I-V or current-voltage characteristic is the current in a circuit as a function of the applied voltage
• Receiver operating characteristic
• Light characteristic pattern of a lighted beacon, in navigation
In mathematics
• The characteristic of a ring R is a number that describes what happens to integers when interpreted in R
• A characteristic function usually means the indicator function of a subset, though the term has other meanings in specific domains
• The characteristic polynomial in linear algebra is a polynomial associated to a square matrix
• The Euler characteristic is a topological invariant
In fiction:
• Another name for ability score in Dungeons & Dragons

Writer

A writer is anyone who creates a written work, though the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, as well as those who have written in many different forms

Producer
Producer: Individual who has the greatest involvement and oversight among a film's various producers. In smaller companies or independent projects, may not be the equivalent of the executive producer. Executive producer: In major productions, usually a representative or CEO of the film studio - although the title may be given as an honorarium to a major investor - often oversees the financial, administrative and creative aspects of production, though not technical aspects. In smaller companies or independent projects, may be synonymous with creator/writer. Co-producer: A producer who reports to the Executive Producer and provides money to finance a project. In large productions, the co-producer is more involved in the day-to-day production. In independent projects, the title can connote an involvement in the inception of the production. Associate producer: Usually acts as a representative of the Producer, who may share financial, creative, or administrative responsibilities, delegated from that producer. Often, a title for an experienced film professional acting as a consultant or a title granted as a courtesy to one who makes a major financial or creative contribution to the production. According to David Mamet, "It's what you give your secretary instead of a raise." Assistant producer: Usually works under the direction of the Associate Producer. Production director: A representative of the film company assigned to the set and given the authority to act on behalf of the senior production-team members. Line producer: Oversees a film's budget and day-to-day activities Production supervisor: Usually performs managerial duties on one aspect of the production. Production manager: Manages the studio. Post production supervisor: Usually performs the post team in movies. Production designer: Usually oversees the on screen visual aspects of a location or set - including stage dressing, props, color palette, and set design. Administrative Producer: Reports to the Board of Directors. Freelancers are employed by the Administrative Producer for specific tasks such as press and publicity activities, design, production management, etc
Composer
A composer (Latin com+ponere, literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates music, usually by musical notation, for interpretation and performance. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which affects issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European music, the function of composing music initially did not have much greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive enormous attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. Over time, however, the written notation of the composer came to be treated as strict instructions from which performers should not deviate without good practical or artistic reason. Performers do, however, play the music and interpret it in a way that is all their own. In fact, in the concerto form, the soloist would often compose and perform a cadenza as a way to express their individual interpretation of the piece.
The term "composer" is often used to refer to composers of instrumental music, such as those found in classical, jazz or other forms of art and traditional music. In popular and folk music, the composer is usually called a songwriter, since the music generally takes the form of a song.
Editing
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing language, images, sound, video, or film through processes of correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications in various media. A person who edits is called an editor. In a sense, the editing process originates with the idea for the work itself and continues in the relationship between the author and the editor. Editing is, therefore, also a practice that includes creative skills, human relations, and a precise set of methods.[1][2]

Text editor
A text editor is a type of program used for editing plain text files.
Text editors are often provided with operating systems or software development packages, and can be used to change configuration files and programming language source code.


Librarian
A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs. Typically, librarians work in a public or college library, an elementary or secondary school media center, a library within a business or company, or another information-provision agency. Some librarians are independent entrepreneurs working as information specialists, catalogers, indexers and other professional, specialized capacities. Librarians may be categorized as a public, school, correctional, special, independent or academic librarian.

Informatics
Informatics can be synonymous with:
• Informatics (academic field), a broad academic field encompassing artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science, information science, and social science
• Computer science, the study of information and computation
• Information science, the study of the processing, management, and retrieval of information
• Information technology, the study, design, development, implementation, support, or management of computer-based information systems
• Archival informatics
• Bioinformatics
• Biodiversity Informatics
• Business informatics
• Cheminformatics
• Community informatics
• Disease Informatics
• Ecoinformatics
• Evolutionary informatics
• Geoinformatics
• Health informatics
• Laboratory information management system
• Legal informatics
• Materials informatics
• Music informatics
• Neuroinformatics
• Social informatics
• Translational research informatics
• Quantum information science
• Urdu Informatics
• Informatics (software company), a software company formed as a subsidiary of Dataproducts in 1962

I know so many people as they are teenagers who are extremely unhappy.Having sex under the age of 12 or 13,this leads tobe with surprisingly little :"Pregnancy"as we surely always have the best pharmacies that we can order by taking the pill so as to prevent from it that is sooner getting abortion of which need an anatomy to cut off the ovary where the comlexion of baby is setting out and keeping infant of endomorph.In some cases,that shall be entitled tobe hard to have a baby in the future.We couln't take themselves back rather than the pain on their bleeding heart reaffriming back the ovary by taking a surgeon which is considered as :"the fake ovary' .
Happiness
Of which sorrow=__________
Love
Acording to the survey,19-20% of teenagers had sex or was raped when he/she in school.30-40% of single people were not self-conscious yet that gonna hestitate ensuring the sex provides :"unspeakable comfort' by first facing dismay unless they shoudn't do that .The slight of better people more than average (include the married couple ,conhabitant ,divorced and the senoir people)found the betrayingness and cheatingness in high dudgeon as always having been threatened on the rampaged words and bad-behaviour around sex as the sex partner had been dumped.
Cheating

Cheating is an act of lying, deception, fraud, trickery, imposture, or imposition. Cheating characteristically is employed to create an unfair advantage, usually in one's own interest, and often at the expense of others,[1] Cheating implies the breaking of rules. The term "cheating" is less applicable to the breaking of laws, as illegal activities are referred to by specific legal terminology such as fraud or corruption. Cheating is a primordial economic act: getting more for less, often used when referring to marital infidelity. A person who is guilty of cheating is generally referred to as a cheat (British English), or a cheater (American English).

dudg•eon
1. Obsolete A kind of wood used in making knife handles.
2. Archaic
a. A dagger with a hilt made of this wood.
b. The hilt of a dagger.
be•trayed, be•tray•ing, be•trays
1.
a. To give aid or information to an enemy of; commit treason against: betray one's country.
b. To deliver into the hands of an enemy in violation of a trust or allegiance: betrayed Christ to the Romans.
2. To be false or disloyal to: betrayed their cause; betray one's better nature.
3. To divulge in a breach of confidence: betray a secret.
4. To make known unintentionally: Her hollow laugh betrayed her contempt for the idea.
5. To reveal against one's desire or will.
6. To lead astray; deceive. See Synonyms at deceive.


Threatened species
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to extinction in the near future. World Conservation Union (IUCN) is the foremost authority on threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories: vulnerable, endangered, and critically endangered, depending on the degree to which they are threatened.
Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the population dynamics measure of critical depensation, a mathematical measure of biomass related to population growth rate. This quantitative metric is one method of evaluating the degree of endangerment.
Less-than-threatened categories are Near Threatened, Least Concern, and the no longer assigned category of Conservation Dependent. Species which have not been evaluated (NE), or do not have sufficient data (Data Deficient) also are not considered "threatened" by the IUCN.
Although threatened and vulnerable may be used interchangeably when discussing IUCN categories, the term threatened is generally used to refer to the three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of those three categories. They may be used interchangeably in most contexts however, as all vulnerable species are threatened species (vulnerable is a category of threatened species); and, as the more at-risk categories of threatened species (namely endangered and critically endangered) must, by definition, also qualify as vulnerable species, all threatened species may also be considered vulnerable.
Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Subspecies, populations and stocks may also be classified as threatened.
threatened" is defined as "any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range".[1] It is the less protected the two protected categories. The Bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis) is an example of a threatened subspecies protected under the ESA.
Knowledge
.
Knowledge is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning. The term knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose if appropriate. See knowledge management for additional details on that discipline.
I know some people who is "Lucky Man " because of their fortunate tell themselves who would like to achieve the may things from virginity of which how many things had they got I would like to restimate.In the addition of Police officer want to abuse sex on the sex partner only being as :"A model in Sex Films".But my surpringly little:"Monk"was able to enjoy on their own sex life how to be a under not restimate....Some people took a chance to have sex with us when we are in Mental","Nap",...The Pimp sex magazines are revealed to seal on narrow-minded for sex citizen of which many pulisher ignored thar matter based on the fact shows that 30-40% were pulisher by these content are too large had been loutroup.

Many people concern about "Playing Cards of Sex Games "and how many cards on Sex Games they save I would like to comment .We will be dumped with their bad-knowledges meanwhile they are virgin whereof they could be not refused in the vocalno until they haven't had the time "Plug -In'.
I sense some people who are divorced because of their unfaithful ,impatience and not facing the challenges -in danger as the time deplois.
Senior
Senior can refer to:
• A person of old age
• Senior (education): a student in the last (usually fourth) year of high school or at a college or university.
• A student in the twelfth grade, in high school. Year 11 and 12 in Australia are called seniors. Likewise, Year 12 and Year 13 in New Zealand are also referred to as seniors.
• A suffix for the elder of two or more people in the same family with the same given name, usually a parent or grandparent
• Nassau William Senior (1790-1864), an English economist
• Julio Ximenes Senior (1901-1975), a Brazilian scientist and Army general
• Peter Senior (born 1959), an Australian golfer
• Keith Senior (born 1976), an English rugby league player
• The forthcoming album from Norwegian electronic music duo Röyksopp, set for release toward the end of 2009.
Divorce
Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the final termination of a marriage, canceling the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage and dissolving the bonds of matrimony between married persons. In most countries, divorce requires the sanction of a judge or other authority in a legal process.
In western countries, a divorce does not declare a marriage null and void, as in an annulment, but divorce cancels the marital status of the parties. Where monogamy is law, this allows each partner to marry another. Where polygyny is legal, divorce allows the woman to marry another.
Divorce laws vary considerably around the world. Divorce is not permitted in some countries, such as in Malta and in the Philippines, though an annulment is permitted.
The legal process for divorce may also involve issues of spousal support, child custody, child support, distribution of property and division of debt, though these matters are usually only ancillary or consequential to the dissolution of the marriage.
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between individuals that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged by a variety of ways, depending on the culture or demographic. Such a union may also be called matrimony, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is usually called a wedding and the marital structure created is known as wedlock.
People marry for many reasons, most often including one or more of the following: legal, social, emotional, economical, spiritual, and religious. These might include arranged marriages, family obligations, the legal establishment of a nuclear family unit, the legal protection of children and public declaration of love.[1][2]
Marriage practices are very diverse across cultures, may take many forms, and are often formalized by a ceremony called a wedding.[3] The act of marriage usually creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved. In some societies these obligations also extend to certain family members of the married persons. Almost all cultures that recognize marriage also recognize adultery as a violation of the terms of marriage.[4]
External recognition can manifest in a variety of ways. Some examples include the state, a religious authority, or both. It is often viewed as a contract. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution irrespective of religious affiliation, in accordance with marriage laws of the jurisdiction. If recognized by the state, by the religion(s) to which the parties belong or by society in general, the act of marriage changes the personal and social status of the individuals who enter into it.
Cohabitation
Cohabitation is when people live together in an emotionally and/or sexually intimate relationship. The term is most frequently applied to couples who are not married.
People may live together for a number of reasons. These may include wanting to test compatibility or to establish financial security before marrying. It may also be because they are unable to legally marry, because for example same-sex, interracial or interreligious marriages are not legal or permitted. Other reasons include living with someone before marriage in an effort to avoid divorce, a way for polygamists or polyamorists to avoid breaking the law, a way to avoid the higher income taxes paid by some two-income married couples (in the United States), negative effects on pension payments (among older people), and philosophical opposition to the institution of marriage and seeing little difference between the commitment to live together and the commitment to marriage. Some individuals also may choose cohabitation because they see their relationships as being private and personal matters, and not to be controlled by political, religious or patriarchal institutions.
Some couples prefer cohabitation because it does not legally commit them for an extended period, and because it is easier to establish and dissolve without the legal costs often associated with a divorce. In some jurisdictions cohabitation can be viewed legally as common-law marriages, either after the duration of a specified period, or the birth of the couple's child, or if the couple consider and behave accordingly as husband and wife. (This helps provide the surviving partner a legal basis for inheriting the deceased's belongings in the event of the death of their cohabiting partner.)
Today, cohabitation is a common pattern among people in the Western world, especially those who desire marriage but whose financial situation temporarily precludes it, or who wish to prepare for what married life will be like before actually getting married, or because they see no benefit or value offered by marriage. More and more couples choose to have long-term relationships without marriage, and cohabit as a permanent arrangement.

Some a little bit chilren were sold on Sex menu because they are dumped by their parents's nonsense of which they could renew the hymen tobe compeleted on their nonsensual day .And in the odd of many chilren sold themselves on Sex Videos with their sex partner because of theirs no truly love into their lives .
Should we concern about "The sex in mother 'or "the mother in sex "as we agree that are in the same type of :"mother "and "Sex"unless we are in crazy in sex between friends and the sex partner and colleagues ...
In the detail ,a great deal of :"Loving Game 'and "Twin Blade " attacked into our lives on the computers,in the music and every TV channel,.footballer,singer,... for our ambitious's satisfied and expected more than.we have viewed in every corner of the street in the globe.We can't resolve its consequences as can we have obligied to abide :" Sex Harrashment" with every people around us including "Don't Abuse Sex on children" who are only 5,6 or senior people standing ,walking or sleeping on the street ,in the office,in the subway or the transportation means , at schools , in public,in the family..eventhough we have had the law to protect the Human Rights for every people as made some people consciously believing it to be true and has the same force and effect as if under the oath that declare in the truthfully and accuracy depends on our personnel of which love is any of a number of emotions related to a sense of strong affection[1] and attachment. The word love can refer to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes, ranging from generic pleasure ("I loved that meal") to intense interpersonal attraction ("I love my husband"). This diversity of uses and meanings, combined with the complexity of the feelings involved, makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, even compared to other emotional states.
As an abstract concept, love usually refers to a deep, ineffable feeling of tenderly caring for another person. Even this limited conception of love, however, encompasses a wealth of different feelings, from the passionate desire and intimacy of romantic love to the nonsexual emotional closeness of familial and platonic love[2] to the profound oneness or devotion of religious love.[3] Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. are in the entirely fraction between the success the denomarator and the life the numerator.Thus:
Success
Love=___________
Life
in the renewal of Loving Sex -Loving World-Loving Life today

We have the rights to take your comment about sex besides its pros and cons .But we shall be entitled to put out of comment ..as we are not in the accuracy....because of the Sex instinct and the sex appeal not about the kinds of Sex Love today.You are allowed not tobe a Slave of sex when you are not self -concious about that .Without your knowledges and believing in our life ,you will be dumped and betrayed ....even you are single people,married.cohabitant one day

Suceess
Persistence=________
Expectation
The pain in the love
Dumped (Betrayed)=________________
The persistence
However it is,I can't deny the benefit of sex is alowed to fit the sympathize and companion among us ,any sex incurred in retaining the relationship seems strongly maintain the happiness of married couple even the lesbians,gays and senoir people .
Benefits
Apart from the possibility of its resulting in successful pregnancy and childbirth, sex has a wide range of health benefits including relief from stress, more immunity through increased immunoglobulin A, reduced risk of heart attack and of prostate cancer, sounder sleep and loss in body weight.[5]

Sexual activity and orientations
Sexual pleasure
Sexual pleasure is pleasure derived from any kind of sexual activity. Though orgasm is generally known, sexual pleasure includes erotic pleasure during foreplay, and pleasure due to fetish or BDSM.[36][37]
Heterosexuality
Main article: Heterosexuality
Heterosexuality involves individuals of opposite sexes.[38]
Different-sex sexual practices are limited by laws in many places. In some countries, mostly those where religion has a strong influence on social policy, marriage laws serve the purpose of encouraging people to have sex only within marriage. Sodomy laws were seen as discouraging same-sex sexual practices, but may affect opposite-sex sexual practices. Laws also ban adults from committing sexual abuse, committing sexual acts with anyone under an age of consent, performing sexual activities in public, and engaging in sexual activities for money (prostitution). Though these laws cover both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual activities, they may differ in regard to punishment, and may be more frequently (or exclusively) enforced on those who engage in same-sex sexual activities.[39]
Different-sex sexual practices may be monogamous, serially monogamous, or polyamorous, and, depending on the definition of sexual practice, abstinent or autoerotic (including masturbation).
Different religious and political movements have tried to influence or control changes in sexual practices including courting and marriage, though in most countries changes occur at a slow rate.[40]
Homosexuality

People with a homosexual orientation can express their sexuality in a variety of ways, and may or may not express it in their behaviors.[42] Some have sexual relationships predominately with people of their own gender identity, another gender, bisexual relationships or they can be celibate.[42] Research indicates that many lesbians and gay men want, and succeed in having, committed and durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship.[43]
It is possible for a person whose sexual identity is mainly heterosexual to engage in sexual acts with people of the same sex. For example, mutual masturbation in the context of what may be considered normal heterosexual teen development. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual people who pretend to be heterosexual are often referred to as being closeted, hiding their sexuality in "the closet". "Closet case" is a derogatory term used to refer to people who hide their sexuality. Making that orientation (semi-) public can be called "coming out" in the case of voluntary disclosure or "outing" in the case of disclosure by others against the subject's wishes. Among some communities (called "men on the DL" or "down-low"), same-sex sexual behavior is sometimes viewed as solely for physical pleasure. Men on the "down-low" may engage in sex acts with other men while continuing sexual and romantic relationships with women.
The definition of homosexuality is a preference to members of one's own sex, though people who engage exclusively in same-sex sexual practices may not identify themselves as bisexual, gay or lesbian. In sex-segregated environments, individuals may seek relationships with others of their own gender (known as situational homosexuality). In other cases, some people may experiment or explore their sexuality with same (and/or different) sex sexual activity before defining their sexual identity. Despite stereotypes and common misconceptions, there are no forms of sexual activity exclusive to same-sex sexual behavior that can not also be found in opposite-sex sexual behavior, save those involving contact of the same sex genitalia such as tribadism and frot.
Autoerotic sexuality

Autoeroticism, also known as autosexuality, is sexual activity that does not involve another person as a partner. It can involve masturbation, though several paraphilias require a partner. Many people use dildos, vibrators, anal beads, sybian machines, and other sex toys while alone.[44]
Though many autoerotic practices are relatively physically safe, some can be dangerous. These include erotic asphyxiation and self-bondage. The potential for injury or even death that exists while engaging in the partnered versions of these fetishes (choking and bondage, respectively) becomes drastically increased due to the isolation and lack of assistance in the event of a problem.
Coercive and abusive sexuality
Sexual activity can also encompass sexual abuse — that is, coercive or abusive use of sexuality. Examples include: rape, lust murder, child sexual abuse, and zoosadism (animal abuse which may be sexual in nature), as well as (in many countries) certain non-consensual paraphilias such as frotteurism, telephone scatophilia (indecent phonecalls), and non-consensual exhibitionism and voyeurism (known as "indecent exposure" and "peeping tom" respectively).[45]
The sexual abuse of individuals is widely prohibited by law and considered against the norms of society.

Sex as recreation is a special art, and women were trained to master it. The word is self-explanatory: re-creation:creating again. Recreation is not entertainment, which is the conventional meaning of the word. The flowering of physical sex becomes love which is re-creative. When love is fulfilled, its fragrance is creativity. It is observed that a sexually fulfilled person becomes extremely creative.
If people only seek pleasure out of sex, they are bound to be frustrated sooner or later. Because every pleasure has its opposite: the pain. Sex can really recreate and rejuvenate people, if experienced with consciousness.
Now, women can participate in sex without fear, as contraceptives have dissociated intercourse with pregnancy. Modern women can enjoy the intricacies of lovemaking and transmit their joy to their partners. But the question is: are there sensitive, sexually-trained men who are expert partners of the evolved women?
Normally, girls and boys are conditioned to be husbands and wives, which involves procreative sex. Sex as recreation needs sharpened sensitivity and refined sensuality; it is a skilled job. Just as a trained musician plays on the musical instrument with love and care, a skilled lover has to play on the body of his beloved sensitively, and vice versa.
Here, Osho will be immensely helpful. If you allow me to say so, he alone can redeem humanity from sexual inhibitions. He has brought a new dimension to sexuality. His basic contention is: sex is neither moral, nor immoral, it is amoral. It is a wild, boundless, existential energy. Drop your inhibitions and go natural. Clean your mind of all the perverted ideas about sexuality.


Success
of which Happiness=__________
Love
to avoid constructing the fake mentally happy involing in "fake marriage"in the spitually happy"Sex"on the immagination ,...now and forever.
Do sex turn out into Love that is considered as their well-intentioned efforts tobe supportive.We can make it in evidence eventhough it plays an important role for a couple(50-60% married )..not anyone we have known in our lives.But they are still loved with respect because they have got their talents and persistence to achieve their happiness ending up "Acuracy "in "A Loving World"and together shaking hands to :"A group of Beautiful Country.....Planet...".
Sucess
Life= ______
Love

*)Blood and physical disorders:
Blood contains :"White and Red ".The mixture of which combination of blood affect :"Misterious Blood '->(HIV ):1-100-1000....comeback to ourselves without any safe sex Therapy,....
H1N1 flu that involing in our bad-lung diseases ,that matter shall be entitled to comment on our bad -lung's digestion checking in ,could you find something lost are we are in the mind of the immune system .We could find the accuracy on H1N1 flu on chicken 's flu. That sooner to cut off the digestion 's chicken nowadays before it inequallyin flam manifestations from people to people.
The importance of the matter claim on me that is the precious of love and sympathize AROUND SEX .If someplp have abused sex too much ,they will have got deserved the physical disorders such as gonorrhea,syphylis cervix,....that enhance the Man/Woman's Health. I assume we can have overviewed the risk associated with its by "the sexual transmission disease " .Somebody have being dejected about the inlam manifestations from people to people with the cencus disease AISDS/SIDA that need an anatomy to cut off the ovary before it affected badly to the organs link to the leucocyte and erythcocyte and >>>brain will have come to our lives without the carefulness.or without any safe sex Therapy nowadays.
Transmission (medicine)

In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. The microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) that cause disease may be transmitted from one person to another by one or more of the following means:
• droplet contact - coughing or sneezing on another person
• direct physical contact - touching an infected person, including sexual contact
• indirect contact - usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface
• airborne transmission - if the microorganism can remain in the air for long periods
• fecal-oral transmission - usually from contaminated food or water sources
• vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals
Microorganisms vary widely in the length of time that they can survive outside the human body, and so vary in how they are transmitted
Sexual Transmission
This refers to any disease that can be caught during sexual activity with another person, including vaginal or anal sex or (less commonly) through oral sex (see below). Transmission is either directly between surfaces in contact during intercourse (the usual route for bacterial infections and those infections causing sores) or from secretions (semen or the fluid secreted by the excited female) which carry infectious agents that get into the partner's blood stream through tiny tears in the penis, vagina or rectum (this is a more usual route for viruses). In this second case, anal sex is considerably more hazardous since penis opens more tears in the rectum than the vagina, as the vagina is stretchier and more accommodating.
Some diseases transmissible by the sexual route include (at least):
• HIV/AIDS
• Chlamydia
• Genital warts
• Gonorrhea
• Hepatitis B
• Syphilis
Oral Sexual Transmission
Sexually Transmitted Diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis B are thought to not normally be transmitted through mouth-to-mouth contact, although it is possible to transmit some STDs between the genitals and the mouth, during oral sex. In the case of HIV this possibility has been established. It is also responsible for the increased incidence of herpes simplex virus 1 (which is usually responsible for oral infections) in genital infections and the increased incidence of the type 2 virus (more common genitally) in oral infections.
Oral Transmission
Diseases that are transmitted primarily by oral means may be caught through direct oral contact such as kissing, or by indirect contact such as by sharing a drinking glass or a cigarette.
Diseases that are known to be transmissible by kissing or by other direct or indirect oral contact include all of the diseases listed above as transmissible by droplet contact and also (at least):
• Cytomegalovirus infections
• Herpes simplex virus (especially HSV-1)
• Infectious mononucleosis
(Notice these are all forms of herpes virus.)
Human intercourse can however also result in sexually transmitted diseases such as those arising from HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, and HPV. For this reason, some people require potential sex partners to be tested for sexually transmitted diseases before engaging in sex.[6]
Intercourse can also lead to unwanted pregnancy. This can be avoided by the use of birth control measures such as condoms, spermicides, hormonal contraception, and sterilization.[7]

Sexually transmitted disease
A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infection (STI) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years.
Most of the diseases on this list are most commonly transmitted sexually. Some are commonly transmitted in other ways as well; for example, HIV/AIDS is also commonly transmitted through the sharing of infected needles by drug users, while SARS, which can be spread through casual contact such as coughing and sneezing, is very often not associated with sexual activity.
Bacterial
• Bacterial vaginosis (BV)—not officially an STD but affected by sexual activity.
• Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
• Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
• Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
• Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2, L3. See Chlamydia infection)
• Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) (Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis)
• Staphylococcal infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)—Sexually transmissible.[2]
• Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Fungal
• Tinea cruris "Jock Itch" (Trichophyton rubrum and others)—Sexually transmissible.
• Candidiasis or "yeast Infection"
Viral
• Adenoviridae[3] thought to contribute to obesity[1]—venereal fluids (also fecal & respiratory fluids)
• Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)—saliva, venereal fluids.
(Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C (liver cancer) is rarely sexually transmittable,[4] and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission.[5] [6] [7])
• Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1,2) skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters
• Herpes simplex virus 1 may be linked to Alzheimer's disease.[8]
• HIV/ AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)—venereal fluids
• Human T-lymphotropic virus 1,2—venereal fluids
• Genital warts ("low risk" types of Human papillomavirus HPV)—skin and muscosal, transmissible with or without visible warts
• Cervical cancer, anal cancer ("high risk" types of Human papillomavirus HPV)—skin and muscosal
• Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV)—close contact
• Mononucleosis
• (Cytomegalovirus CMV - Herpes 5)—saliva, sweat, urine, feces and venereal fluids.
• (Epstein-Barr virus EBV - Herpes 4)—saliva
• Kaposi's sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus KSHV - Herpes 8)—saliva
Parasites
• Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" (Phthirius pubis)
• Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
Protozoal
• Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
Sexually transmitted enteric infections
Various bacterial (Shigella, Campylobacter, or Salmonella), viral (Hepatitis A, Adenoviruses), or parasitic (Giardia or amoeba) pathogens are transmitted by sexual practices that promote anal-oral contamination (fecal-oral). Sharing sex toys without washing or multiple partnered barebacking can promote anal-anal contamination. Although the bacterial pathogens may coexist with or cause proctitis, they usually produce symptoms (diarrhea, fever, bloating, nausea, and abdominal pain) suggesting disease more proximal in the GI tract.
Sexually transmissible oral infections
Common colds, influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Adenoviruses, Human Papillomavirus, Oral Herpes (1, 2 & 4, 5, 8), Hepatitis B and the yeast Candida albicans can all be transmitted through the oral route.
Pathophysiology
Many STDs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, rectum, urinary tract and (less often—depending on type of infection)[citation needed] the mouth, throat, respiratory tract and eyes. The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body.[9] Pathogens are also able to pass through breaks or abrasions of the skin, even minute ones. The shaft of the penis is particularly susceptible due to the friction caused during penetrative sex. The primary sources of infection in ascending order are venereal fluids, saliva, mucosal or skin (particularly the penis), infections may also be transmitted from feces, urine and sweat.[10] The amount required to cause infection varies with each pathogen but is always less than you can see with the naked eye.
This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual contact—touching, hugging, shaking hands—but it is not the only reason. Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STIs seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. According to a safe sex chart, many infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the genitals to the mouth, are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another.[11] With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than saliva. Some infections labeled as STIs can be transmitted by direct skin contact. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. KSHV, on the other hand, may be transmitted by deep-kissing but also when saliva is used as a sexual lubricant.
Depending on the STD, a person may still be able to spread the infection if no signs of disease are present. For example, a person is much more likely to spread herpes infection when blisters are present (STD) than when they are absent (STI). However, a person can spread HIV infection (STI) at any time, even if he/she has not developed symptoms of AIDS (STD).
All sexual behaviors that involve contact with the bodily fluids of another person should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation.
As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses are still the causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a person who has an STD got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Some STDs such as HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Although the likelihood of transmitting various diseases by various sexual activities varies a great deal, in general, all sexual activities between two (or more) people should be considered as being a two-way route for the transmission of STDs, i.e., "giving" or "receiving" are both risky although receiving carries a higher risk.
Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.
Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the networks that are defined by sexual relationships between individuals, and discovered that the properties of sexual networks are crucial to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, assortative mixing between people with large numbers of sexual partners seems to be an important factor.
It is possible to be an asymptomatic carrier of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, sexually transmitted diseases in women often cause the serious condition of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Prevention
Main article: Safe sex
Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes.
The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. No contact minimizes risk. Not all sexual activities involve contact: cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk.
Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or before resuming contact if a partner engaged in contact with someone else. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.
Many diseases that establish permanent infections can so occupy the immune system that other diseases become more easily transmitted. The innate immune system led by defensins against HIV can prevent transmission of HIV when viral counts are very low, but if busy with other viruses or overwhelmed, HIV can establish itself. Certain viral STI's also greatly increase the risk of death for HIV infected patients.
Vaccines
Vaccines are available that protect against some viral STIs, such as Hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Vaccination before initiation of sexual contact is advised to assure maximal protection.
Condoms
Condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier, and only to and from the area that it covers. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STDs. In the case of HIV, sexual transmission routes almost always involve the penis, as HIV cannot spread through unbroken skin, thus properly shielding the insertive penis with a properly worn condom from the vagina and anus effectively stops HIV transmission. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted", but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact, this can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when having open bleeding wounds. Other STDs, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex condoms as a barrier. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through the pores in natural skin condoms, but are still too large to pass through latex condoms.
Condoms are designed, tested, and manufactured to never fail if used properly. There has not been one documented case of an HIV transmission due to an improperly manufactured condom
Proper usage entails:
• Not putting the condom on too tight at the end, and leaving 1.5 cm (3/4 inch) room at the tip for ejaculation. Putting the condom on snug can and often does lead to failure.
• Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier.
• Avoiding inverting, spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not, even for a second.
• Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex or polyurethane, as they don't protect against HIV.
• Avoiding the use of oil based lubricants (or anything with oil in it) with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them.
• Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate.
Not following the first five guidelines above perpetuates the common misconception that condoms aren't tested or designed properly.
In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STIs, the old condom and its contents should be assumed to be still infectious. Therefore the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom should be used for each act of intercourse, as multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the primary purpose as a barrier.
Nonoxynol-9
Nonoxynol-9 a vaginal microbicide was hoped to decrease STD rates. Trials however have found it ineffective.[12]
Diagnosis
STI tests may test for a single infection, or consist of a number of individual tests for any of a wide range of STIs, including tests for syphilis, trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis and HIV tests. No procedure tests for all infectious agents.
STI tests may be used for a number of reasons:
• as a diagnostic test to determine the cause of symptoms or illness
• as a screening test to detect asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections
• as a check that prospective sexual partners are free of disease before they engage in sex without safer sex precautions (for example, in fluid bonding, or for procreation).
• as a check prior to or during pregnancy, to prevent harm to the baby
• as a check after birth, to check that the baby has not caught an STI from the mother
• to prevent the use of infected donated blood or organs
• as part of the process of contact tracing from a known
Most of the diseases on this list are most commonly transmitted sexually. Some are commonly transmitted in other ways as well; for example, HIV/AIDS is also commonly transmitted through the sharing of infected needles by drug users, while SARS, which can be spread through casual contact such as coughing and sneezing, is very often not associated with sexual activity.
Bacterial
• Bacterial vaginosis (BV)—not officially an STD but affected by sexual activity.
• Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
• Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
• Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
• Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2, L3. See Chlamydia infection)
• Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) (Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis)
• Staphylococcal infection (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)—Sexually transmissible.[2]
• Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Fungal
• Tinea cruris "Jock Itch" (Trichophyton rubrum and others)—Sexually transmissible.
• Candidiasis or "yeast Infection"
Viral
• Adenoviridae[3] thought to contribute to obesity[1]—venereal fluids (also fecal & respiratory fluids)
• Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)—saliva, venereal fluids.
(Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C (liver cancer) is rarely sexually transmittable,[4] and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission.[5] [6] [7])
• Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1,2) skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters
• Herpes simplex virus 1 may be linked to Alzheimer's disease.[8]
• HIV/ AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)—venereal fluids
• Human T-lymphotropic virus 1,2—venereal fluids
• Genital warts ("low risk" types of Human papillomavirus HPV)—skin and muscosal, transmissible with or without visible warts
• Cervical cancer, anal cancer ("high risk" types of Human papillomavirus HPV)—skin and muscosal
• Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV)—close contact
• Mononucleosis
• (Cytomegalovirus CMV - Herpes 5)—saliva, sweat, urine, feces and venereal fluids.
• (Epstein-Barr virus EBV - Herpes 4)—saliva
• Kaposi's sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus KSHV - Herpes 8)—saliva
Parasites
• Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" (Phthirius pubis)
• Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
Protozoal
• Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
Sexually transmitted enteric infections
Various bacterial (Shigella, Campylobacter, or Salmonella), viral (Hepatitis A, Adenoviruses), or parasitic (Giardia or amoeba) pathogens are transmitted by sexual practices that promote anal-oral contamination (fecal-oral). Sharing sex toys without washing or multiple partnered barebacking can promote anal-anal contamination. Although the bacterial pathogens may coexist with or cause proctitis, they usually produce symptoms (diarrhea, fever, bloating, nausea, and abdominal pain) suggesting disease more proximal in the GI tract.
Sexually transmissible oral infections
Common colds, influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Adenoviruses, Human Papillomavirus, Oral Herpes (1, 2 & 4, 5, 8), Hepatitis B and the yeast Candida albicans can all be transmitted through the oral route.
Pathophysiology
Many STDs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, rectum, urinary tract and (less often—depending on type of infection)[citation needed] the mouth, throat, respiratory tract and eyes. The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body.[9] Pathogens are also able to pass through breaks or abrasions of the skin, even minute ones. The shaft of the penis is particularly susceptible due to the friction caused during penetrative sex. The primary sources of infection in ascending order are venereal fluids, saliva, mucosal or skin (particularly the penis), infections may also be transmitted from feces, urine and sweat.[10] The amount required to cause infection varies with each pathogen but is always less than you can see with the naked eye.
This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual contact—touching, hugging, shaking hands—but it is not the only reason. Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STIs seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. According to a safe sex chart, many infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the genitals to the mouth, are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another.[11] With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than saliva. Some infections labeled as STIs can be transmitted by direct skin contact. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. KSHV, on the other hand, may be transmitted by deep-kissing but also when saliva is used as a sexual lubricant.
Depending on the STD, a person may still be able to spread the infection if no signs of disease are present. For example, a person is much more likely to spread herpes infection when blisters are present (STD) than when they are absent (STI). However, a person can spread HIV infection (STI) at any time, even if he/she has not developed symptoms of AIDS (STD).
All sexual behaviors that involve contact with the bodily fluids of another person should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation.
As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses are still the causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a person who has an STD got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Some STDs such as HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Although the likelihood of transmitting various diseases by various sexual activities varies a great deal, in general, all sexual activities between two (or more) people should be considered as being a two-way route for the transmission of STDs, i.e., "giving" or "receiving" are both risky although receiving carries a higher risk.
Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.
Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the networks that are defined by sexual relationships between individuals, and discovered that the properties of sexual networks are crucial to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, assortative mixing between people with large numbers of sexual partners seems to be an important factor.
It is possible to be an asymptomatic carrier of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, sexually transmitted diseases in women often cause the serious condition of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Prevention
Main article: Safe sex
Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes.
The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. No contact minimizes risk. Not all sexual activities involve contact: cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk.
Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or before resuming contact if a partner engaged in contact with someone else. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.
Many diseases that establish permanent infections can so occupy the immune system that other diseases become more easily transmitted. The innate immune system led by defensins against HIV can prevent transmission of HIV when viral counts are very low, but if busy with other viruses or overwhelmed, HIV can establish itself. Certain viral STI's also greatly increase the risk of death for HIV infected patients.
Vaccines
Vaccines are available that protect against some viral STIs, such as Hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Vaccination before initiation of sexual contact is advised to assure maximal protection.
Condoms
Condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier, and only to and from the area that it covers. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STDs. In the case of HIV, sexual transmission routes almost always involve the penis, as HIV cannot spread through unbroken skin, thus properly shielding the insertive penis with a properly worn condom from the vagina and anus effectively stops HIV transmission. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted", but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact, this can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when having open bleeding wounds. Other STDs, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex condoms as a barrier. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through the pores in natural skin condoms, but are still too large to pass through latex condoms.
Condoms are designed, tested, and manufactured to never fail if used properly. There has not been one documented case of an HIV transmission due to an improperly manufactured condom
Proper usage entails:
• Not putting the condom on too tight at the end, and leaving 1.5 cm (3/4 inch) room at the tip for ejaculation. Putting the condom on snug can and often does lead to failure.
• Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier.
• Avoiding inverting, spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not, even for a second.
• Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex or polyurethane, as they don't protect against HIV.
• Avoiding the use of oil based lubricants (or anything with oil in it) with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them.
• Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate.
Not following the first five guidelines above perpetuates the common misconception that condoms aren't tested or designed properly.
In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STIs, the old condom and its contents should be assumed to be still infectious. Therefore the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom should be used for each act of intercourse, as multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the primary purpose as a barrier.
Nonoxynol-9
Nonoxynol-9 a vaginal microbicide was hoped to decrease STD rates. Trials however have found it ineffective.[12]
Diagnosis
STI tests may test for a single infection, or consist of a number of individual tests for any of a wide range of STIs, including tests for syphilis, trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis and HIV tests. No procedure tests for all infectious agents.
STI tests may be used for a number of reasons:
• as a diagnostic test to determine the cause of symptoms or illness
• as a screening test to detect asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections
• as a check that prospective sexual partners are free of disease before they engage in sex without safer sex precautions (for example, in fluid bonding, or for procreation).
• as a check prior to or during pregnancy, to prevent harm to the baby
• as a check after birth, to check that the baby has not caught an STI from the mother
• to prevent the use of infected donated blood or organs
• as part of the process of contact tracing from a known
Treatment
High risk exposure such as what occurs in rape cases may be treated prophylacticly using antibiotic combinations such as azithromycin, cefixime, and metronidazole.
An option for treating partners of patients (index cases) diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea is patient-delivered partner therapy (PDT or PDPT), which is the clinical practice of treating the sex partners of index cases by providing prescriptions or medications to the patient to take to his/her partner without the health care provider first examining the partner.[14]

AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[1][2][3]
This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.[4][5]
This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids.
AIDS is now a pandemic.[6] In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children.[7] Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa,[7] retarding economic growth and destroying human capital.[8]
Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.[9][10] AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.[11]
Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is currently no vaccine or cure. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.[12] Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.
Symptoms
generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV infection; any particular individual's disease course may vary considerably. CD4+ T Lymphocyte count (cells/mm³) HIV RNA copies per mL of plasma
The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.
Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[13] HIV affects nearly every organ system.
People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.[14][15] The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.

Knowledges (memories ,Injured,...)
Self -feeling of brain =_____________________________
Circle of lives(Round and Round )
by using the intestcious brain.to muslim on the people that have to put our memories reversion:
The present
Day=_________________ The present
The future(Distance ..or not Of which Future=____________
The yesterday

Pulmonary infections
Pneumocystis pneumonia (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and still abbreviated as PCP, which now stands for Pneumocystis pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood.[16]
Tuberculosis (TB) is unique among infections associated with HIV because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people via the respiratory route, is easily treatable once identified, may occur in early-stage HIV disease, and is preventable with drug therapy. However, multidrug resistance is a potentially serious problem.
Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent. In early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB typically presents as a pulmonary disease. In advanced HIV infection, TB often presents atypically with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and are not localized to one particular site, often affecting bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system.[17]
Gastrointestinal infections
Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lower end of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV infected individuals, this is normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.[18]
Unexplained chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacterial (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasitic infections; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,[19] astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis).
In some cases, diarrhea may be a side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection. It may also be a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea (common for Clostridium difficile). In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIV-related wasting.[20]
Neurological and psychiatric involvement
HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by organisms, or as a direct consequence of the illness itself.
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii; it usually infects the brain, causing toxoplasma encephalitis, but it can also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.[21] Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It can cause fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Patients may also develop seizures and confusion; left untreated, it can be lethal.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients. It progresses rapidly, usually causing death within months of diagnosis.[22]
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia. These cells are productively infected by HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin.[23] Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads.
Prevalence is 10–20% in Western countries[24] but only 1–2% of HIV infections in India.[25][26] This difference is possibly due to the HIV subtype in India. AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder. Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course. This syndrome is less often seen with the advent of multi-drug therapy.
Tumors and malignancies
Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several cancers. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[27][28]
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients. The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic. Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin, but can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's-like lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients. These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas. In HIV-infected patients, lymphoma often arises in extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract.[29] When they occur in an HIV-infected patient, KS and aggressive B cell lymphomas confer a diagnosis of AIDS.
Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is also considered AIDS-defining. It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).[30]
In addition to the AIDS-defining tumors listed above, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of certain other tumors, notably Hodgkin's disease, anal and rectal carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, head and neck cancers, and lung cancer. Some of these are causes by viruses, such as Hodgkin's disease (EBV), anal/rectal cancers (HPV), head and neck cancers (HPV), and hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B or C). Other contributing factors include exposure to carcinogens (cigarette smoke for lung cancer), or living for years with subtle immune defects.
Interestingly, the incidence of many common tumors, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, does not increase in HIV-infected patients. In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at the same time malignant cancers overall have become the most common cause of death of HIV-infected patients.[31] In recent years, an increasing proportion of these deaths have been from non-AIDS-defining cancers.
Other infections
AIDS patients often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss. These include opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV can cause colitis, as described above, and CMV retinitis can cause blindness.
Penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia.[32]
An infection that often goes unrecognized in AIDS patients is Parvovirus B19. Its main consequence is anemia, which is difficult to distinguish from the effects of antiretroviral drugs used to treat AIDS itself.[33]
Cause
AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells.[34]
Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.[35]
In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[36] However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.
Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body's ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person's general immune function.[37][38] Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.
Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression.[36][39][40] The infected person's genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-Δ32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV.[41] HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.[42][43][44]
Sexual transmission
Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another. Unprotected receptive sexual acts are riskier than unprotected insertive sexual acts, and the risk for transmitting HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is greater than the risk from vaginal intercourse or oral sex.
However, oral sex is not entirely safe, as HIV can be transmitted through both insertive and receptive oral sex.[45][46] Sexual assault greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely employed and physical trauma to the vagina or rectum occurs frequently, facilitating the transmission of HIV.[47]
Other sexually transmitted infections (STI) increase the risk of HIV transmission and infection, because they cause the disruption of the normal epithelial barrier by genital ulceration and/or microulceration; and by accumulation of pools of HIV-susceptible or HIV-infected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) in semen and vaginal secretions. Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and North America suggest that genital ulcers, such as those caused by syphilis and/or chancroid, increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV by about fourfold. There is also a significant although lesser increase in risk from STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis, which all cause local accumulations of lymphocytes and macrophages.[48]
Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions.
However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission.[48][49] Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.[50][51]
People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains.
Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships. This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners. A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection.[52]
HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere. One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50% of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.[53][54]
Exposure to blood-borne pathogens
This transmission route is particularly relevant to intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products. Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV.
Needle sharing is the cause of one third of all new HIV-infections in North America, China, and Eastern Europe. The risk of being infected with HIV from a single prick with a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150 (see table above). Post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-HIV drugs can further reduce this risk.[55]
This route can also affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings. Universal precautions are frequently not followed in both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage of supplies and inadequate training.
The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted through unsafe healthcare injections.[56] Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly has urged the nations of the world to implement precautions to prevent HIV transmission by health workers.[57]
The risk of transmitting HIV to blood transfusion recipients is extremely low in developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed. However, according to the WHO, the overwhelming majority of the world's population does not have access to safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world's HIV infections come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products.[58]
Perinatal transmission
The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth. In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate between a mother and her child during pregnancy, labor and delivery is 25%.
However, when the mother takes antiretroviral therapy and gives birth by caesarean section, the rate of transmission is just 1%.[59] The risk of infection is influenced by the viral load of the mother at birth, with the higher the viral load, the higher the risk. Breastfeeding also increases the risk of transmission by about 4 %.[60]
Misconceptions
Main article: HIV and AIDS misconceptions
A number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding HIV/AIDS. Three of the most common are that AIDS can spread through casual contact, that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS, and that HIV can infect only homosexual men and drug users. Other misconceptions are that any act of anal intercourse between gay men can lead to AIDS infection, and that open discussion of homosexuality and HIV in schools will lead to increased rates of homosexuality and AIDS.[61]
Pathophysiology
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes.[62] Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases.[63]
During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers.
Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of infection, especially in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors the majority of the lymphocytes found in the body.[64] The reason for the preferential loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells is that a majority of mucosal CD4+ T cells express the CCR5 coreceptor, whereas a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so.[65]
HIV seeks out and destroys CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells during acute infection. A vigorous immune response eventually controls the infection and initiates the clinically latent phase. However, CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues remain depleted throughout the infection, although enough remain to initially ward off life-threatening infections.
Continuous HIV replication results in a state of generalized immune activation persisting throughout the chronic phase.[66] Immune activation, which is reflected by the increased activation state of immune cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines, results from the activity of several HIV gene products and the immune response to ongoing HIV replication. Another cause is the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells during the acute phase of disease.[67]
This results in the systemic exposure of the immune system to microbial components of the gut’s normal flora, which in a healthy person is kept in check by the mucosal immune system. The activation and proliferation of T cells that results from immune activation provides fresh targets for HIV infection. However, direct killing by HIV alone cannot account for the observed depletion of CD4+ T cells since only 0.01–0.10% of CD4+ T cells in the blood are infected.
A major cause of CD4+ T cell loss appears to result from their heightened susceptibility to apoptosis when the immune system remains activated. Although new T cells are continuously produced by the thymus to replace the ones lost, the regenerative capacity of the thymus is slowly destroyed by direct infection of its thymocytes by HIV. Eventually, the minimal number of CD4+ T cells necessary to maintain a sufficient immune response is lost, leading to AIDS
Cells affected
The virus, entering through which ever route, acts primarily on the following cells:[68]
• Lymphoreticular system:
• CD4+ T-Helper cells
• Macrophages
1. Monocytes
• B-lymphocytes
• Certain endothelial cells
1. Central nervous system:
• Microglia of the nervous system
• Astrocytes
• Oligodendrocytes
• Neurones – indirectly by the action of cytokines and the gp-120
The effect
The virus has cytopathic effects but how it does it is still not quite clear. It can remain inactive in these cells for long periods, though. This effect is hypothesized to be due to the CD4-gp120 interaction.[68]
• The most prominent effect of HIV is its T-helper cell suppression and lysis. The cell is simply killed off or deranged to the point of being function-less (they do not respond to foreign antigens). The infected B-cells can not produce enough antibodies either. Thus the immune system collapses leading to the familiar AIDS complications, like infections and neoplasms (vide supra).
• Infection of the cells of the CNS cause acute aseptic meningitis, subacute encephalitis, vacuolar myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Later it leads to even AIDS dementia complex.
1. The CD4-gp120 interaction (see above) is also permissive to other viruses like Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis virus, Herpes simplex virus, etc. These viruses lead to further cell damage i.e. cytopathy.
Molecular basis
For details, see:
• Structure and genome of HIV
HIV replication cycle
HIV tropism
Diagnosis
The diagnosis of AIDS in a person infected with HIV is based on the presence of certain signs or symptoms. Since June 5, 1981, many definitions have been developed for epidemiological surveillance such as the Bangui definition and the 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition. However, clinical staging of patients was not an intended use for these systems as they are neither sensitive, nor specific. In developing countries, the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease, using clinical and laboratory data, is used and in developed countries, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Classification System is used.
WHO disease staging system
Main article: WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease
In 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) grouped these infections and conditions together by introducing a staging system for patients infected with HIV-1.[69] An update took place in September 2005. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that are easily treatable in healthy people.
Stage I: HIV infection is asymptomatic and not categorized as AIDS
Stage II: includes minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
Stage III: includes unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis
Stage IV: includes toxoplasmosis of the brain, candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs and Kaposi's sarcoma; these diseases are indicators of AIDS.
CDC classification system
Main article: CDC Classification System for HIV Infection
There are two main definitions for AIDS, both produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The older definition is to referring to AIDS using the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.[70][71] In 1993, the CDC expanded their definition of AIDS to include all HIV positive people with a CD4+ T cell count below 200 per µL of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes.[72] The majority of new AIDS cases in developed countries use either this definition or the pre-1993 CDC definition. The AIDS diagnosis still stands even if, after treatment, the CD4+ T cell count rises to above 200 per µL of blood or other AIDS-defining illnesses are cured.
HIV test
Main article: HIV test
Many people are unaware that they are infected with HIV.[73] Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results. Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities.[73] Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV.
HIV tests are usually performed on venous blood. Many laboratories use fourth generation screening tests which detect anti-HIV antibody (IgG and IgM) and the HIV p24 antigen. The detection of HIV antibody or antigen in a patient previously known to be negative is evidence of HIV infection. Individuals whose first specimen indicates evidence of HIV infection will have a repeat test on a second blood sample to confirm the results.
The window period (the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection) can vary since it can take 3–6 months to seroconvert and to test positive. Detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the window period is possible, and evidence suggests that an infection may often be detected earlier than when using a fourth generation EIA screening test.
Positive results obtained by PCR are confirmed by antibody tests.[74] Routinely used HIV tests for infection in neonates and infants (ie, patients younger than 2 years),[75] born to HIV-positive mothers, have no value because of the presence of maternal antibody to HIV in the child's blood. HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR, testing for HIV pro-viral DNA in the children's lymphocyt
Prevention
The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible.[84]
Sexual contact
The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. The primary mode of HIV infection worldwide is through sexual contact between members of the opposite sex.[85][86][87]
During a sexual act, only male or female condoms can reduce the chances of infection with HIV and other STDs and the chances of becoming pregnant. The best evidence to date indicates that typical condom use reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long-term, though the benefit is likely to be higher if condoms are used correctly on every occasion.[88]
The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous. If necessary, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants.
Oil-based lubricants can however be used with polyurethane condoms.[89]
The female condom is an alternative to the male condom and is made from polyurethane, which allows it to be used in the presence of oil-based lubricants. They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina.
The female condom contains an inner ring, which keeps the condom in place inside the vagina – inserting the female condom requires squeezing this ring. However, at present availability of female condoms is very low and the price remains prohibitive for many women.
Preliminary studies suggest that, where female condoms are available, overall protected sexual acts increase relative to unprotected sexual acts, making them an important HIV prevention strategy.[90]
Studies on couples where one partner is infected show that with consistent condom use, HIV infection rates for the uninfected partner are below 1% per year.[91] Prevention strategies are well-known in developed countries, but epidemiological and behavioral studies in Europe and North America suggest that a substantial minority of young people continue to engage in high-risk practices despite HIV/AIDS knowledge, underestimating their own risk of becoming infected with HIV.[92][93]
Randomized controlled trials have shown that male circumcision lowers the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men by up to 60%.[94] It is expected that this procedure will be actively promoted in many of the countries affected by HIV, although doing so will involve confronting a number of practical, cultural and attitudinal issues. However, programs to encourage condom use, including providing them free to those in poverty, are estimated to be 95 times more cost effective than circumcision at reducing the rate of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.[95]
Some experts fear that a lower perception of vulnerability among circumcised men may result in more sexual risk-taking behavior, thus negating its preventive effects.[96] However, one randomized controlled trial indicated that adult male circumcision was not associated with increased HIV risk behavior.[97]
Exposure to infected body fluids
Health care workers can reduce exposure to HIV by employing precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood. These precautions include barriers such as gloves, masks, protective eyeware or shields, and gowns or aprons which prevent exposure of the skin or mucous membranes to blood borne pathogens. Frequent and thorough washing of the skin immediately after being contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection. Finally, sharp objects like needles, scalpels and glass, are carefully disposed of to prevent needlestick injuries with contaminated items.[98] Since intravenous drug use is an important factor in HIV transmission in developed countries, harm reduction strategies such as needle-exchange programmes are used in attempts to reduce the infections caused by drug abuse.[99][100]
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)
Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant. However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.[101] It should be noted that women may breastfeed other children who are not their own; see wetnurse.
Treatment
There is currently no publicly available vaccine for HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).[102] PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue.[103]
Antiviral therapy
Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.[104] This has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available.[12] Current optimal HAART options consist of combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents. Typical regimens consist of two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) plus either a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Because HIV disease progression in children is more rapid than in adults, and laboratory parameters are less predictive of risk for disease progression, particularly for young infants, treatment recommendations are more aggressive for children than for adults.[105] In developed countries where HAART is available, doctors assess the viral load, rapidity in CD4 decline, and patient readiness while deciding when to recommend initiating treatment.[106]
Standard goals of HAART include improvement in the patient’s quality of life, reduction in complications, and reduction of HIV viremia below the limit of detection, but it does not cure the patient of HIV nor does it prevent the return, once treatment is stopped, of high blood levels of HIV, often HAART resistant.[107][108] Moreover, it would take more than the lifetime of an individual to be cleared of HIV infection using HAART.[109] Despite this, many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life, which has led to the plummeting of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality.[110][111][112] In the absence of HAART, progression from HIV infection to AIDS occurs at a median of between nine to ten years and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[36] HAART is thought to increase survival time by between 4 and 12 years.[113][114]
For some patients, which can be more than fifty percent of patients, HAART achieves far less than optimal results, due to medication intolerance/side effects, prior ineffective antiretroviral therapy and infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Non-adherence and non-persistence with therapy are the major reasons why some people do not benefit from HAART.[115] The reasons for non-adherence and non-persistence are varied. Major psychosocial issues include poor access to medical care, inadequate social supports, psychiatric disease and drug abuse. HAART regimens can also be complex and thus hard to follow, with large numbers of pills taken frequently.[116][117][118] Side effects can also deter people from persisting with HAART, these include lipodystrophy, dyslipidaemia, diarrhoea, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks and birth defects.[119] Anti-retroviral drugs are expensive, and the majority of the world's infected individuals do not have access to medications and treatments for HIV and AIDS.
Experimental and proposed treatments
It has been postulated that only a vaccine can halt the pandemic because a vaccine would possibly cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, and would not require daily treatments. However, even after almost 30 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.[120]
Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining the best sequence of regimens to manage drug resistance. A number of studies have shown that measures to prevent opportunistic infections can be beneficial when treating patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is advised for patients who are not infected with these viruses and are at risk of becoming infected.[121] Patients with substantial immunosuppression are also advised to receive prophylactic therapy for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), and many patients may benefit from prophylactic therapy for toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus meningitis as well.[103]
Researchers have discovered an abzyme that can destroy the protein gp120 CD4 binding site. This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the immune system.[122]
In Berlin, Germany, a 42-year-old leukemia patient infected with HIV for more than a decade was given an experimental transplant of bone marrow with cells that contained an unusual natural variant of the CCR5 cell-surface receptor. This CCR5-Δ32 variant has been shown to make some cells from people who are born with it resistant to infection with some strains of HIV. Almost two years after the transplant, and even after the patient reportedly stopped taking antiretroviral medications, HIV has not been detected in the patient's blood.[123]
Alternative medicine
Various forms of alternative medicine have been used to treat symptoms or alter the course of the disease.[124] Current studies indicate that alternative medicine therapies have little effect on the mortality or morbidity of the disease, but may improve the quality of life of individuals with AIDS. The psychological benefits of these therapies are the most important use.[124] Acupuncture has been used to alleviate some symptoms with no success and cannot cure the HIV infection.[125] Several randomized clinical trials testing the effect of herbal medicines have shown that there is no evidence that these herbs have any effect on the progression of the disease, but may instead produce serious side-effects.[126]
Morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults with adequate dietary nutritional intake is unaffected by multivitamin supplementation. A large Tanzanian trial in immunologically and nutritionally compromised pregnant and lactating women showed a number of benefits to daily multivitamin supplementation for both mothers and children.[127] Dietary intake of micronutrients at RDA levels by HIV-infected adults is recommended by the World Health Organization.[128] There is some evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children reduces mortality and improves growth.[127] Daily doses of selenium can suppress HIV viral burden with an associated improvement of the CD4 count. Selenium can be used as an adjunct therapy to standard antiviral treatments, but cannot itself reduce mortality and morbidity.[129]
Prognosis
Without treatment, the net median survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype,[7] and the median survival rate after diagnosis of AIDS in resource-limited settings where treatment is not available ranges between 6 and 19 months, depending on the study.[130] In areas where it is widely available, the development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection and AIDS reduced the death rate from this disease by 80%, and raised the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed HIV-infected person to about 20 years.[131]
As new treatments continue to be developed and because HIV continues to evolve resistance to treatments, estimates of survival time are likely to continue to change. Without antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year.[36] Most patients die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.[132] The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function[37][38][41] health care and co-infections,[36][132] as well as which particular strain of the virus is involved.[43][133][134]
Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected patients may experience neurocognitive disorders, osteoporosis, neuropathy, cancers, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. It is not always clear whether these conditions result from the infection, related complications, or are side effects of treatment.[135][136[125][27][28][137][119][138]
Epidemiology
The AIDS pandemic can also be seen as several epidemics of separate subtypes; the major factors in its spread are sexual transmission and vertical transmission from mother to child at birth and through breast milk.[6] Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.1 million (range 1.9–2.4 million) lives in 2007 of which an estimated 330,000 were children under 15 years.[7] Globally, an estimated 33.2 million people lived with HIV in 2007, including 2.5 million children. An estimated 2.5 million (range 1.8–4.1 million) people were newly infected in 2007, including 420,000 children.[7]
Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst affected region. In 2007 it contained an estimated 68% of all people living with AIDS and 76% of all AIDS deaths, with 1.7 million new infections bringing the number of people living with HIV to 22.5 million, and with 11.4 million AIDS orphans living in the region. Unlike other regions, most people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa in 2007 (61%) were women. Adult prevalence in 2007 was an estimated 5.0%, and AIDS continued to be the single largest cause of mortality in this region.[7] South Africa has the largest population of HIV patients in the world, followed by Nigeria and India.[139] South & South East Asia are second worst affected; in 2007 this region contained an estimated 18% of all people living with AIDS, and an estimated 300,000 deaths from AIDS.[7] India has an estimated 2.5 million infections and an estimated adult prevalence of 0.36%.[7] Life expectancy has fallen dramatically in the worst-affected countries; for example, in 2006 it was estimated that it had dropped from 65 to 35 years in Botswana.[6]
In the United States, young African-American women are also at unusually high risk for HIV infection. This is due in part to a lack of information about AIDS and a perception that they are not vulnerable, as well as to limited access to health-care resources and a higher likelihood of sexual contact with at-risk male sexual partners.[140] There are also geographic disparities in AIDS prevalence in the United States, where it is most common in rural areas and in the southern states, particularly in the Appalachian and Mississippi Delta regions and along the border with Mexico.[141]
History
Main article: Origin of AIDS
AIDS was first reported June 5, 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded a cluster of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (now still classified as PCP but known to be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii) in five homosexual men in Los Angeles.[142] In the beginning, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.[70][71] They also used Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task force had been set up in 1981.[143] In the general press, the term GRID, which stood for Gay-related immune deficiency, had been coined.[144] The CDC, in search of a name, and looking at the infected communities coined “the 4H disease,” as it seemed to single out Haitians, homosexuals, hemophiliacs, and heroin users.[145] However, after determining that AIDS was not isolated to the homosexual community,[143] the term GRID became misleading and AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982.[146] By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness.[147]
A more controversial theory known as the OPV AIDS hypothesis suggests that the AIDS epidemic was inadvertently started in the late 1950s in the Belgian Congo by Hilary Koprowski's research into a poliomyelitis vaccine.[148][149] According to scientific consensus, this scenario is not supported by the available evidence.[150][151][152]
A recent study states that HIV probably moved from Africa to Haiti and then entered the United States around 1969.[153]
Society and culture
Ryan White became a poster child for HIV after being expelled from school because of his infection.
AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals.[154] Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.[155]
AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:
Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.[156]
Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.[156]
Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.[157]
Often, AIDS stigma is expressed in conjunction with one or more other stigmas, particularly those associated with homosexuality, bisexuality, promiscuity, prostitution, and intravenous drug use.
In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes.[158] There is also a perceived association between AIDS and all male-male sexual behavior, including sex between uninfected men.[156]
Economic impact
Changes in life expectancy in some hard-hit African countries. Botswana Zimbabwe Kenya South Africa Uganda
HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital.[8] Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people suffer and die from AIDS-related complications. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. The forecast is that this will probably cause a collapse of economies and societies in countries with a significant AIDS population. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents.[159]
The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labor force. This smaller labor force will be predominantly young people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity. An increase in workers’ time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity. Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents. By killing off mainly young adults, AIDS seriously weakens the taxable population, reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state's finances and slower growth of the economy. This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that will be reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans.[159]
On the level of the household, AIDS results in both the loss of income and increased spending on healthcare by the household. The income effects of this lead to spending reduction as well as a substitution effect away from education and towards healthcare and funeral spending. A study in Côte d'Ivoire showed that households with an HIV/AIDS patient spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households.[160]
Religion and AIDS
The topic of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past twenty years, primarily because many prominent religious leaders have publicly declared their opposition to the use of condoms, which scientists feel is currently the only means of stopping the epidemic. Other issues involve religious participation in global health care services and collaboration with secular organizations such as UNAIDS and the World Health Organization.
AIDS denialism
Main article: AIDS denialism
A small number of activists question the connection between HIV and AIDS,[161] the existence of HIV,[162] or the validity of current treatment methods (even going so far as to claim that the drug therapy itself was the cause of AIDS deaths). Though these claims have been examined and thoroughly rejected by the scientific community,[163] they continue to be promulgated through the Internet[164] and have had a significant political impact. In South Africa, former President Thabo Mbeki's embrace of AIDS denialism resulted in an ineffective governmental response to the AIDS epidemic that has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of AIDS-related deaths.[165][166}.





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Circumstances : (In the globe)

Country

In geography, a country is a geographical region. The term is often applied to a political division or the territory of a state, or to a smaller, or former, political division of a geographical region. Usually, but not always, a country coincides with a sovereign territory and is associated with a state, nation and government.
The country can also mean the countryside, as opposed to the city.
In common usage, the term country is used in the sense of both nations and states, with definitions varying. In some cases it is used to refer both to states and to other political entities,[1][2][3] while in some occasions it refers only to states[4] It is not uncommon for general information or statistical publications to adopt the wider definition for purposes such as illustration and comparison.[5][6][7][8][9]
Some cohesive geographical entities, which were formerly sovereign states, are commonly regarded and referred to still as countries; such as England, Scotland and Wales – in the United Kingdom.[10][11][12][13] Historically, the countries of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia were others. Former states such as Bavaria (now part of Germany) and Piedmont (now part of Italy) would not normally be referred to as "countries" in contemporary English. The degree of autonomy of non-state countries varies widely. Some are possessions of states, as several states have overseas dependencies (such as the British Virgin Islands, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and American Samoa), with territory and citizenry distinct from their own. Such dependent territories are sometimes listed together with independent states on lists of countries, and may be treated as a "country of origin" in international trade, as Hong Kong is. Some countries are divided among several states, such as Silesia and Kurdistan.
Environment
In general, environment refers to the surroundings of an object.
Environment may refer to:
• Built environment, constructed surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places.
• Environment (biophysical), the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism.
• Environment (systems), the surroundings of a physical system that may interact with the system by exchanging mass, energy, or other properties
• Environmental art
• Environmental determinism
• Environmental policy
• Environmental psychology
• Environmental quality
• Environmental science, the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment
• Environments (series) A series of LPs, cassettes and CDs depicting natural sounds
• Knowledge environment
• Natural environment, all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth
• Social environment, the culture that an individual lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact
In computing:
• Desktop environment, in computing, is graphical user interface to the computer
• Environment variable, the set of environments defined in a process
• Integrated development environment, a type of computer software that assists computer programmers in developing software
• Runtime environment, a virtual machine state which provides software services for processes or programs while a computer is running

Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these same elements over periods up to two weeks.
The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, altitude, ice or snow cover, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and rainfall. The most commonly used classification scheme is the one originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system,[1] in use since 1948, incorporates evapotranspiration in addition to temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying animal species diversity and potential impacts of climate changes. The Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses defining the climate for certain areas.
Paleoclimatology is the study and description of ancient climates. Since direct observations of climate are not available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores, and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. Climate models are mathematical models of past, present and future climates.
Definition
Climate(from Ancient Greek klima, meaning inclination) is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period of time.[2] The standard averaging period is 30 years,[3] but other periods may be used depending on the purpose. Climate also includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is:
Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.[4]
The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get."[5] Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains. These change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics. Other climate determinants are more dynamic: for example, the thermohaline circulation of the ocean leads to a 5 °C (9 °F) warming of the northern Atlantic ocean compared to other ocean basins.[6] Other ocean currents redistribute heat between land and water on a more regional scale. The density and type of vegetation coverage affects solar heat absorption,[7] water retention, and rainfall on a regional level. Alterations in the quantity of atmospheric greenhouse gases determines the amount of solar energy retained by the planet, leading to global warming or global cooling. The variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least insofar as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned.[8]
Temperateness
World map with temperate zones highlighted in red
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. But in continental areas, such as central North America the variations between summer and winter can be extreme. In regions traditionally considered tropical, localities at high altitudes (e.g. parts of the Andes) may have a temperate climate. The north temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer (at about 23.5 degrees north latitude) to the Arctic Circle (at approximately 66.5 degrees north latitude). The south temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Capricorn (at approximately 23.5 degrees south latitude) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5 degrees south latitude).
Within these borders there are many climate types, which are generally grouped into four categories: oceanic, mediterranean, humid subtropical and continental.
The maritime climate is affected by the oceans, which help to sustain somewhat stable temperatures throughout the year. In temperate zones the prevailing winds are from the west, thus the western edge of temperate continents most commonly experience this maritime climate. Such regions include Western Europe, and western North America at latitudes between 40° and 60° north (65°N in Europe).
The continental climate is usually situated inland, with warmer summers and colder winters. Heat loss and reception are aided by extensive land mass. In North America, the Rocky Mountains act as a climate barrier to the maritime air blowing from the west, creating a continental climate to the east. In Europe, the maritime climate is able to stabilize inland temperature, because the major mountain range - the Alps - is oriented east-west (the area east of the long Scandinavian mountain range is an exception).
The vast majority of the world's human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the northern hemisphere because of the mass of land. Peoples of European descent are dominant in most of the temperate zones due to the great migrations of the 1700s and 1800s, except in areas which already had a high population density (such as East Asia) or in the Muslim world. However the population in the temperate zones are somewhat decreasing, due to low birth rates and a growing migration trend from the temperate zone to the tropics.
Humidity
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressure of water vapor at a prescribed temperature. Humidity may also be expressed as specific humidity. Relative humidity is an important metric used in forecasting weather. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. High humidity makes people feel hotter outside in the summer because it reduces the effectiveness of sweating to cool the body by reducing the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table.

Dew point and frost point
Associated with relative humidity is dew point (If the dew point is below freezing, it is referred to as the frost point). Dew point is the temperature at which water vapor saturates from an air mass into liquid or solid usually forming rain, snow, frost, or dew. Dew point normally occurs when a mass of air has a relative humidity of 100%. This happens in the atmosphere as a result of cooling through a number of different processes
Measuring and regulating humidity

There are various devices used to measure and regulate humidity. A device used to measure humidity is called a psychrometer or hygrometer. A humidistat is used to regulate the humidity of a building with a de-humidifier. These can be analogous to a thermometer and thermostat for temperature control.
Humidity is also measured on a global scale using remotely placed satellites. These satellites are able to detect the concentration of water in the troposphere at altitudes between 4 and 12 kilometers. Satellites that can measure water vapor have sensors that are sensitive to infrared radiation. Water vapor specifically absorbs and re-radiates radiation in this spectral band. Satellite water vapor imagery plays an important role in monitoring climate conditions (like the formation of thunderstorms) and in the development of future weather forecasts.
Humidity and air density
Main article: Density of air
Humid air is less dense than dry air because a molecule of water (M ≈ 18 u ) is less massive than a molecule of nitrogen (M ≈ 28) and a molecule of oxygen (M ≈ 32). About 78% of the molecules in dry air are nitrogen (N2). Another 21% of the molecules in dry air are oxygen (O2). The final 1% of dry air is a mixture of other gases. For any gas, at a given temperature and pressure, the number of molecules present is constant for a particular volume - see ideal gas law. So when water molecules (vapor) are introduced to the dry air, the number of air molecules must reduce by the same number in a given volume, without the pressure or temperature increasing. Hence the mass per unit volume of the gas (its density) decreases. Isaac Newton discovered this phenomenon and wrote about it in his book Opticks.[3]
Effects on human body
The human body sheds heat by a combination of evaporation of perspiration, heat convection in the surrounding air, and thermal radiation. Under conditions of high humidity, the evaporation of sweat from the skin is decreased and the body's efforts to maintain an acceptable body temperature may be significantly impaired. Also, if the atmosphere is as warm as or warmer than the skin during times of high humidity, blood brought to the body surface cannot shed heat by conduction to the air, and a condition called hyperpyrexia results. With so much blood going to the external surface of the body, relatively less goes to the active muscles, the brain, and other internal organs. Physical strength declines and fatigue occurs sooner than it would otherwise. Alertness and mental capacity also may be affected. This resulting condition is called heat stroke or hyperthermia.
Recommendations for comfort
Humans control their body temperature mainly by sweating and shivering. The United States Environmental Protection Agency cites the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, which recommends keeping relative humidity between 30% and 60%, with below 50% preferred to control dust mites. At high humidity sweating is less effective so we feel hotter; thus the desire to remove humidity from air with air conditioning in the summer. In the winter, heating cold outdoor air can decrease indoor relative humidity levels to below 30%, leading to discomfort such as dry skin and excessive thirst.
Effects on electronics
Many electronic devices have humidity specifications, for example, 5 to 95%. At the top end of the range, moisture may increase the conductivity of permeable insulators leading to malfunction. Too low humidity may make materials brittle. A particular danger to electronic items, regardless of the stated operating humidity range, is condensation. When an electronic item is moved from a cold place (eg garage, car, shed, an air conditioned space in the tropics) to a warm humid place (house, outside tropics), condensation may coat circuit boards and other insulators, leading to short circuit inside the equipment. Such short circuits may cause substantial permanent damage if the equipment is powered on before the condensation has evaporated. A similar condensation effect can often be observed when a person wearing glasses comes in from the cold. It is advisable to allow electronic equipment to acclimatise for several hours, after being brought in from the cold, before powering on. The inverse is also true.
Low humidity also favors the buildup of static electricity, which may result in spontaneous shutdown of computers when discharges occur. Apart from spurious erratic function, electrostatic discharges can cause dielectric breakdown in solid state devices, resulting in irreversible damage. Data centers often monitor relative humidity levels for these reasons.
Humidity in construction
Traditional building designs typically had weak insulation, and this allowed air moisture to flow freely between the interior and exterior. The energy-efficient, heavily-sealed architecture introduced in the 20th century also sealed off the movement of moisture, and this has resulted in a secondary problem of condensation forming in and around walls, which encourages the development of mold and mildew. Solutions for energy-efficient buildings that avoid condensation are a current topic of architecture.
Most humid places on Earth
See also: Humid subtropical climate and Humid continental climate
The most humid cities on earth are generally located closer to the equator, near coastal regions. Cities in South and Southeast Asia are among the most humid, such as Kolkata and those in Kerala in India, the cities of Manila in the Philippines and Bangkok in Thailand: these places experience extreme humidity during their rainy seasons combined with warmth giving the feel of a lukewarm sauna.[4] Darwin, Australia experiences an extremely humid wet season from December to April. Kuala Lumpur and Singapore have very high humidity all year round because of their proximity to water bodies and the equator and overcast weather; despite sunshine, perfectly clear days are rare in these locations and it is often misty. In cooler places such as Northern Tasmania, Australia, high humidity is experienced all year due to the ocean between mainland Australia and Tasmania. In the summer the hot dry air is absorbed by this ocean and the temperature rarely climbs above 35 degrees Celsius.
In the United States the most humid cities, strictly in terms of relative humidity, are Forks and Olympia, Washington.[5] This fact may come as a surprise to many, as the climate in this region rarely exhibits the discomfort usually associated with high humidity. Dew points are typically much lower on the West Coast than on the East. Because high dew points play a more significant role than relative humidity in the discomfort created during humid days, the air in these western cities usually does not feel "humid."
The highest dew points are found in coastal Florida and Texas. When comparing Key West and Houston, two of the most humid cities from those states, coastal Florida seems to have the higher dew points on average. But, as noted by Jack Williams of USA Today,[6] Houston lacks the coastal breeze present in Key West, and, as a much larger city, it suffers from the urban heat island effect.
The US city with the lowest annual humidity is Yuma, Arizona, averaging under 50% for a high and 22% as a low. The next-lowest humidity is Tucson, Arizona, average high humidity of 57% and a low of 26%. Lowest in the world is Antarctica




Rain
Rain is liquid precipitation, as opposed to other kinds of precipitation such as snow, hail and sleet. On Earth, it is the condensation of atmospheric water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall, often making it to the surface. Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. However, not all rain reaches the surface; some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon often seen in hot, dry desert regions. The METAR code for rain is RA.
Rain is also known or suspected on other worlds. On Titan, Saturn's largest moon, infrequent methane rain is thought to carve the moon's numerous surface channels. On Venus, sulfuric acid virga evaporates 25 km from the surface. There is likely to be rain of various compositions in the upper atmospheres of the gas giants, as well as precipitation of liquid neon and helium in the deep atmospheres.
Formation
Rain plays a role in the hydrologic cycle in which moisture from the oceans evaporates, condenses into drops, precipitates (falls) from the sky, and eventually returns to the ocean via rivers and streams to repeat the cycle again. The water vapor from plant respiration also contributes to the moisture in the atmosphere.
A scientific model known as the Bergeron process explains how rain forms and falls. More recent research points to the influence of Cloud condensation nuclei released as the result of biological processes.
Human influence
The fine particulate matter produced by car exhaust and other human sources of pollution forms cloud condensation nuclei, leads to the production of clouds and increases the likelihood of rain. As commuters and commercial traffic cause pollution to build up over the course of the week, the likelihood of rain increases: it peaks by Saturday, after five days of weekday pollution has been built up. In heavily populated areas that are near the coast, such as the United States' Eastern Seaboard, the effect can be dramatic: there is a 22% higher chance of rain on Saturdays than on Mondays.[1]
Classifying the amount of rain
When classified according to the rate of precipitation, rain can be divided into:
• Very light rain — when the precipitation rate is < 0.25 mm/hour
• Light rain — when the precipitation rate is between 0.25 mm/hour - 1.0 mm/hour
• Moderate rain — when the precipitation rate is between 1.0 mm/hour - 4.0 mm/hour
• Heavy rain — when the precipitation rate is between 4.0 mm/hour - 16.0 mm/hour
• Very heavy rain — when the precipitation rate is between 16.0 mm/hour - 50 mm/hour
• Extreme rain — when the precipitation rate is > 50.0 mm/hour
Precipitation is measured using a Rain gauge.[2]
A. Raindrops are not tear-shaped, as most people think.
B. Very small raindrops are almost spherical in shape.
C. Larger raindrops become flattened at the bottom, like that of a hamburger bun, due to air resistance.
D. Large raindrops have a large amount of air resistance, which makes them begin to become unstable.
E. Very large raindrops split into smaller raindrops due to air resistance.
Cherrapunji, situated on the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya in Shillong, India is one of the
Greek ἀτμός - atmos "vapor" and σφαῖρα - sphaira "sphere") is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass,[1] by the gravity of the body, and are retained for a longer duration if gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low. Some planets consist mainly of various gases, but only their outer layer is their atmosphere (see gas giants).
Year Cherrapunji Rainfall (mm) Mawsynram Rainfall (mm)
2002 12,262 11,300
2001 9,071 10,765
2000 11,221 13,561
1999 12,503 13,444
1998 14,536 16,090

The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star, and typically includes the portion starting from the opaque photosphere outwards. Relatively low-temperature stars may form compound molecules in their outer atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere, which contains oxygen used by most organisms for respiration and carbon dioxide used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis, also protects living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation. Its current composition is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms.
Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the core Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%.
The atmosphere has a mass of about five zettagrams (5x1018kg or 5 pentatonnes), three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi) is where atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), also is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space.
Atmospheric pressure
.
Atmospheric pressure is defined as the force per unit area exerted against a surface by the weight of air above that surface at any given point in the Earth's atmosphere. In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. Low pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above their location, whereas high pressure areas have more atmospheric mass above their location. Similarly, as elevation increases there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that pressure decreases with increasing elevation. A column of air one square inch in cross-section, measured from sea level to the top of the atmosphere, would weigh approximately 14.7 lbf (65 N). The weight of a 1 m2 (11 sq ft) column of air would be about 101 kN (10.3 tf)
idea of air pressure at various altitudes.
fraction of 1 atm average altitude
(m) (ft)
1 0 0
1/2 5,486 18,000
1/e 7,915 25,970
1/3 8,376 27,480
1/10 16,132 52,926
1/100 30,901 101,381
1/1000 48,467 159,013
1/10000 69,464 227,899
1/100000 86,282 283,076

Subscript b Height Above Sea Level Static Pressure Standard Temperature
(K) Temperature Lapse Rate
(m) (ft) (pascals) (inHg) (K/m) (K/ft)
0 0 0 101325 29.92126 288.15 -0.00649 -0.0019812
1 11,000 36,089 22632 6.683245 216.65 0.0 0.0
2 20,000 65,617 5474 1.616734 216.65 0.001 0.0003048
3 32,000 104,987 868 0.2563258 228.65 0.0028 0.00085344
4 47,000 154,199 110 0.0327506 270.65 0.0 0.0
5 51,000 167,323 66 0.01976704 270.65 -0.0028 -0.00085344
6 71,000 232,940 4 0.00116833 214.65 -0.002 -0.0006097



SEX AFFAIR:

Sex air currencies in the commercial Bank:
Swift code :17000USD
Monthly interests : 8.000.000 VND
Bank servce charge =17000USD+8.000.000 VND./month =>S=17.000USD +96 tr /year.

Wages =2.000CA /month=1960 USD =>24.000 CA/year =23.480USD /year
Deposit money :100.000.000 VND =7.050 USD .

50 clothes
*6 counties ------English :coat arm ,
French :long coat arm
(deduct asseccories ...) America,Canada :coat arm ,long coat arm ,multiple goat arm
<=50-60 kg Spanish : veston clothes
( container,transit service charge )
Korea ,Japan :dress clothes

Chinese ,Vetnam(model Hong Kong):Jeans_ Jacket .
300 --->300 clothes------>50.000.000 VND ..................>120.000.000 VND------- clothes trading shop:50.000.000VND---->100.000.000 VND
Sum =169.000.000 VND .Total sum interest in material VND=69.000.000 .
90.000.000 VND--->100.100.000VND --------------->589.000.000VND Sum =589.000.000 VND .Total sum interest in material VND .
Nail (supplier,professor)=50 tr VND.

300 clothes
Clothes trading shop :50.000.000 VND-->20.000.000-VND

food stall:20.000.000 VND---->30.000.000 VND.

Total sum interest in material VND (3)=>0=0 .

The conception of balance collected can be in the reality feeling of control that depend on our personnel and circumstances in the renewal of disciplined economic material system .

Sex in the measurenment:

Deport yourself with length of sex body:
Weight:……………………………………………………………………………………
Height:……………………………………………………………………………………
Waist:...................................................................................................................................................................................
Breast /Chest:.....................................................................................................................................................................
Hips:......................................................................................................................................................................................
Please measure: from your armpit to waist:...............................................................................................................
• from your distance armpit 1 cm [(armpit+waist )/2-1]:......................................................................................................
• from your distance armpit to waist 1 cm [(armpit+waist)/2-1+(armpit+waist )/2-1]:........................................................
• from your armpit to hip:...............................................................................................................................................
• from your waist to hip:......................................................................................................................................................
• from your distance armpit to hip 1 cm[(armpit+waist )/2-1+(armpit + hip)/2-(waist +hip)/2]
• from your armpit to elbow:..............................................................................................................
• from your distance armpit to elbow 1 cm[(armpit +elbow )/2-1]:....................................................
• from your armpit to wrist:...............................................................................................................
• from your distance armpit to wrist 1 cm [(armpit+wrist )/2-1].....................................................
• from your armpit to muscle :..........................................................................................................
Please measure from your shoulder right to shoulder left :..................................................................................
• from your shoulder to waist:..........................................................................................................
• from your distance shoulder to waist 1 cm [(shoulder+waist )/2+1] :..........................................................................................................
• from your shoulder to armpit:..........................................................................................................
• from your distance shoulder to armpit 1 cm[(shoulder +armpit )/2-1]:..........................................................................................................
• from your shoulder to elbow:.........................................................................................................
• from your distance shoulder to elbow 1 cm[(shoulder +elbow)/2-1]:...........................................................................................................
• from your shoulder to wrist:..............................................................................................................
• from your elbow to wrist:..............................................................................................................
• from your distance elbow to wrist 1 cm [(elbow +wrist )/2 -1]:..........................................................................................................
• from your shoulder to distance wrist 1 cm =[(shoulder +elbow)/2 -(elbow+wrist)/2-1].....
• from your shoulder to muscle :..........................................................................................................
• from your muscle to elbow:..........................................................................................................
• from your shoulder to distance musle 1 cm= [(shoulder+elbow)/2-(shoulder+muscle)/2-(muscle +elbow)/2-1]:.......................................................................................................................................................
• from your muscle to wrist:.........................................................................................................................
from your neck right to neck hand:.................................................................................

Sex in clothes :

When someone buy our clothes,that does not exist in the air existence commercial.We offer that is not right price ,we need to divide it into 4 ways:

1.Deposit :We doesn’t have the bargain.We loss the relevance of short cothes of which we comment on gament clothes to part in the sorting,folding ,handing or assemblying .The depost should be provided with the change of short humidity and visibly into a crisis period of times and is is always a moment of stock commercial .

2.Stock change :Involves in the pay money or money for debt for a long time ago .That is provided with the autumn or summer or winter with trading clothes in the humidity so short that kept for garment clothes long time ago.

3.Interest garment:any dispute stuffs and expenses come to the bargain not in the loss of clothes as we agree to change stock into sex interests.

4.Pay money and money for debt :Both are the loss of trading.
A
Suppier

A
Suppier D
Retaier
C
B Wholesaler E
Seller Trader Impoter


Bargain will have its reversion the wholesaler (trader) Seller
(Distributor)
Supplier

Wholesaler

Retailer …..
Dropshipper
Importer





Complete the following sentences by filling the blanks:

1.The first time I have sex when ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.When I have sex ,I will be _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.I think my parents proably had a ____________________________sex Life ____________________________________________________________________________

4.My mother and father had _____________realtionship affect ---------in mylife.____________________________________________________________________________

5.When I was a child ,The thing I loved most about my relationship with my father was ___________________________________________________________________

6.When I was a child ,The thing I loved most about my relationship with my mother was ___________________________________________________________________

7.When I was a child ,The thing I loved most about my relationship with my friend was ____________________________________________________________________

8.As a child,I really hated ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9.As a child,I really loved --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.Sex ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.Sex can make you _--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.Sex was entitled it to me when ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13.The best thing about sex was......................................................................................................................................................................................................

14.You have sex when ________________________________________being married in________________times in your life..................................................................

15.You have sex when _______________________________________________being single in ---------------times.in your life......................................................................

16.You have sex when ______________________________________________cohabitant in _________times in your life.......................................................................

17.You have sex when ________________________________________________dirvoced in _________time in your life._________________________________________

18.You have sex when with your next kin /relatives/____________________in _______times ___________time in your life ......................................................................

19.You have sex when before besides your BF/GF/Finance'_____________in the present____________________________________________________________________

20.Do you have sex with the next door _______________________get married ______________________in yourlife._____________________________________________

21.Sex leads you to ___________________________________love and marriage _________betrayed and dumped ----------on the ------------words __________in your life.___

22The person I imagine having sex will be __________________________________________________________________________________________________________

23.The person I imagine not having sex will be______________________________________________________________________________________________________

24The person I imagine having sex appeal will be __________________________________________________________________________________________________

25.The person I imagine withouthaving sex appeal will be______________________________________________________________________________________________

26.When Iam married I will have ________________________________________________________________sex_________________________________________.

27When Iam single I will have __________________________________________________sex_________________________________________________________

28..When Iam cohabitant I will have_______________________________________________sex_________________________________________________________

29.When Iam senoir people I will have _____________________________________________sex_________________________________________________________

30.When thinking of sex I will be___________________________________________with _______________________________________________________________


I f you sense these by using the "Intestgious brain"recognise the sex instinct and the sex appeal emptiness ,you should take comments around this that will help your loved one to feel less alienated as a single person in couple 's world .You will also avoid the common mistakes friends ,families and every people in this planet or the another planet or outside this planet make as we are not in the accuracy in this..But even more importantly ,you will improve the quality of your relationship with single with whorever loved one outside of the planet..It may be a couple's world ,but learing to give your single loved you should open your heart and part of the world in which we have been living.
Success
Charming =_______ Pretty,Beatiful,....or not...
Life of which sensual =___________________
Success
Persistence=____________
Expectation


I reaffirm that :"The conception of sex between the sex instinct and the sex appeal without distinction of age and sex has its no consequences as agreed under this can be in reality feeling of control because the sex homornes doesn't exist in our body if you are in the reality circle of lives
Knowledges
Self-controlling of sex homornes =______________
(sex instinct +sex appeal0 The circle of lives
that has to depend on our personnel and circumstances in the renewal of disciplined life styles Loving Sex -Loving World -Loving Life today".

Biology:

1.The Sex in Thailand is not fairer than the Sex In Vietnam.

2.The drug of life in Vietnam is fairer than the drug of life in Australia ,Canada ,America...

Suggested Reading
Buddha's Birthday - When is Buddha's birthday?
Ritual and Buddhism -- The Purpose of Buddhist Rituals
Why Convert to Buddhism: Reasons to Convert to Buddhism
Suggested Reading
The Practice of Buddhism -- About Buddhist Practice
The First Buddhists
History of Early Buddhism - Buddhist History From the Death of the Buddha to...
Related Articles
Buddhism Basics -- Start Here to Learn About Buddhism
What do Buddhists believe - Beliefs of Buddhism
The Four Dharma Seals -- The Four Dharma Seals Define Buddhism
Atheism and Buddhism -- Buddhism as an Atheistic Religion
Buddhism - Updated Articles and Resources

See also
• Ambient
• Category:Environment, for articles relating to the effect of human activity on the environment
• Ecology, a sub-discipline of biology often confused with the environment in general
• Environmental movement
• Environmentalism, a concern with the preservation of the environment
• List of environmental issues
• All pages beginning with "Environment"
This is a list of sexologists and notable contributors to the field of sexology, by year of birth:
• Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal[17] (1833–1890)
• Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (1840–1902)
• Albert Eulenburg (1840–1917)
• Auguste Henri Forel (1848–1931)
• Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
• Wilhelm Fliess (1858–1928)
• Havelock Ellis (1858–1939)
• Eugen Steinach (1861–1944)
• Robert Latou Dickinson (1861–1950)
• Albert Moll (1862–1939)
• Edward Westermarck (1862–1939)
• Magnus Hirschfeld (1868–1935)
• Iwan Bloch (1872–1922)
• Theodor Hendrik van de Velde (1873–1937)
• Max Marcuse[18] (1877–1963)
• Otto Gross (1877–1920)
• Ernst Gräfenberg (1881–1957)
• Bronisław Malinowski[19][20] (1884–1942)
• Harry Benjamin (1885–1986)
• Theodor Reik (1888–1969)
• Alfred Kinsey (1894–1956)
• Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957)
• Mary Calderone (1904–1998)
• Wardell Pomeroy (1913–2001)
• Albert Ellis (1913–2007)
• Kurt Freund (1914–1996)
• Ernest Borneman (1915–1995)
• William Masters (1915–2001)
• Gershon Legman (1917-1999)
• Paul H. Gebhard (1917– )
• John Money (1921–2006)
• Ira Reiss[21] (1925-)
• Virginia Johnson (1925– )
• Preben Hertoft (1928– )
• Oswalt Kolle (1928– )
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References
• .Sperm "bad"-drain out of the sperm :Canada ,Vietnam,Thailand,...
• Condom-The USA,Canada,Japan ,Chinese ,....
• .Sperm "well'-Power of head hard night -in a truly Loving Sex -Deport themselves well.
• Loutroup
• Hanglo
• Plugg -in time"
• bag cashew
• .funny pig
• kitfan -Brake care
• .Hat deport
• .stream technology of Sex Films
• .lavender tissue
• Helmet monkey
• Beautiful monkey...money
• pig...big........mad....map.......bad....bag…pet ...night....light...line
• Go by sport race
• .hat cable ,immune murker noissome
• ."await until Ihave known we can bye for cycle .motorbike of which the revelance of plane ,air crafts should be reached in the reponse to our ambitious.
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• ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus (1920), Homosexualitat des Mannes und des Weibes, Berlin
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• ^ Zahavi, A. and Zahavi, A. (1997) The handicap principle: a missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. Oxford University Press. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-510035-2


^ Gary Martin (2007). "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". The Phrase Finder. http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/59100.html. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
^ Matthew 23:27, Acts 3:10, Flavius Josephus, 12.65
^ Euripides, Alcestis 515.
^ Rhodes, G. (2006). The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 199-226.
^ Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., & Musselman, L. (1994). What is average and what is not average about attractive faces? Psychological Science, 5, 214-220.
^ KOESLAG, J.H. (1990). Koinophilia groups sexual creatures into species, promotes stasis, and stabilizes social behaviour. J. theor. Biol. 144, 15-35
^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-300862/Born-mothers-curvy-hips.html
^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/769290.stm
^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200310/ai_n9248761/
^ Chris Weedon, Cardiff University. "Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective". Gender Forum Electronic Journal. http://www.genderforum.uni-koeln.de/genderealisations/weedon.html. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
^ Dr. DoCarmo (2007). "Dr. DoCarmo's Notes on the Black Cultural Movement". Bucks County Community College. http://www.bucks.edu/~docarmos/BCMnotes.html. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
^ Leroi, A. (2003). Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. Viking books
^ Lorenz, K. (2005). "Do pretty people earn more?" CNN News, Time Warner.
^ City of God Book 15 Chapter 22
^ Webster's New World College Dictionary, 3rd edition, 1995.
^ a b The National Standard of Canada, CAN/CSA-Z234.1-89 Canadian Metric Practice Guide, January 1989:5.7.3 Considerable confusion exists in the use of the term "weight." In commercial and everyday use, the term "weight" nearly always means mass. In science and technology "weight" has primarily meant a force due to gravity. In scientific and technical work, the term "weight" should be replaced by the term "mass" or "force," depending on the application. 5.7.4 The use of the verb "to weigh" meaning "to determine the mass of," e.g., "I weighed this object and determined its mass to be 5 kg," is correct.
^ Barry N. Taylor, Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), 1995, NIST Special Publication 881, section 8.3[1]
^ Hodgeman, Charles, Ed. (1961). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th Ed.. Cleveland, USA: Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.. p.3480-3485
^ Barry N. Taylor, Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), 1995, NIST Special Publication 881, section 8.3[2] "Thus the SI unit of the quantity weight used in this sense is the kilogram (kg) and the verb 'to weigh' means 'to determine the mass of' or '"to have a mass of.'"
^ This value excludes the adjustment for centrifugal force due to Earth’s rotation and is therefore greater than the 9.80665 m/s2 value of standard gravity. ]
BBC, Nigeria leads in religious belief
Beck, Guy L. (Ed.) (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791464156. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=0SJ73GHSCF8C.
Pickover, Cliff, The Paradox of God and the Science of Omniscience, Palgrave/St Martin's Press, 2001. ISBN 1-4039-6457-2
Collins, Francis, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Free Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7432-8639-1
Harris interactive, While Most Americans Believe in God, Only 36% Attend a Religious Service Once a Month or More Often
Miles, Jack, God: A Biography, Knopf, 1995, ISBN 0-679-74368-5 Book description.
Armstrong, Karen, A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ballantine Books, 1994. ISBN 0-434-02456-2
National Geographic Family Reference Atlas of the World, National Geographic Society, 2002.
Pew research center, The 2004 Political Landscape Evenly Divided and Increasingly Polarized - Part 8: Religion in American Life
Sharp, Michael, The Book of Light: The Nature of God, the Structure of Consciousness, and the Universe Within You. Avatar Publications, 2005. ISBN 0-9738555-2-5. free as eBook
Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, Vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951). ISBN 0-226-80337-6
Hastings, James Rodney (2nd edition 1925-1940, reprint 1955, 2003) [1908-26]. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. John A Selbie (Volume 4 of 24 ( Behistun (continued) to Bunyan.) ed.). Edinburgh: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 476. ISBN 0-7661-3673-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Kaz58z--NtUC&pg=PA540&vq=Krishna&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1&sig=lo3NqA31k8hJZw7qNc9QDEAYyYA. Retrieved 03-05-2008. "The encyclopedia will contain articles on all the religions of the world and on all the great systems of ethics. It will aim at containing articles on every religious belief or custom, and on every ethical movement, every philosophical idea, every moral practice."
Armstrong, Karen (2001). Buddha. Penguin Books. p. 187. ISBN 0-14-303436-7.
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich (ed.) (1984). The World of Buddhism, Thames & Hudson.
Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657189.
Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-84483-125-6.
Cousins, L. S. (1996). "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3 (6.1): 57–63. http://indology.info/papers/cousins/. Retrieved 2007-07-11. ; reprinted in Williams, Buddhism, volume I; NB in the online transcript a little text has been accidentally omitted: in section 4, between "... none of the other contributions in this section envisage a date before 420 B.C." and "to 350 B.C." insert "Akira Hirakawa defends the short chronology and Heinz Bechert himself sets a range from 400 B.C."
Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126190.
de Give, Bernard (2006). Les rapports de l'Inde et de l'Occident des origines au règne d'Asoka. Les Indes savants. ISBN 2846540365.
Donath, Dorothy C. (1971). Buddhism for the West: Theravāda, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press. ISBN 0-07-017533-0.
Embree, Ainslie T. (ed.), Stephen N. Hay (ed.), Wm. Theodore de Bary (ed.), A.L. Bashram, R.N. Dandekar, Peter Hardy, J.B. Harrison, V. Raghavan, Royal Weiler, and Andrew Yarrow (1958; 2nd ed. 1988). Sources of Indian Tradition: From the Beginning to 1800 (vol. 1). NY: Columbia U. Press. ISBN 0-231-06651-1.
Gethin, Rupert (1998). Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289223-1.
Gombrich, Richard F. (1988; 6th reprint, 2002). Theravāda Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo (London: Routledge). ISBN 0-415-07585-8.
Harvey, Peter (1990). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52-131333-3.
Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-321-4. Also available on this websites: saigon.com urbandharma.org vipassana.com
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang. Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 2001, US ed. 2008) ISBN 978-0-9789067-7-1
Indian Books Centre. Bibliotheca Indo Buddhica Series, Delhi.
Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195137989.
Keown, Damien and Charles S Prebish (eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism (London: Routledge). ISBN 978-0-415-31414-5.
Kohn, Michael H. (trans.) (1991). The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen. Shambhala. ISBN 0-87773-520-4.
Lamotte, Étienne (trans. from French) (1976). Teaching of Vimalakirti. trans. Sara Boin. London: Pali Text Society. XCIII. ISBN 0710085400.
Lowenstein, Tom (1996). The Vision of the Buddha. Duncan Baird Publishers. ISBN 1-903296-91-9.
Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed), The Path of the Buddha: Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists, Ronald Press, New York, 1956; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi; distributed by Wisdom Books
Nattier, Jan (2003). A Few Good Men: The Bodhisattva Path according to The Inquiry of Ugra (Ugrapariprccha). University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-2607-8.
Rahula, Walpola (1974). What the Buddha Taught. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3031-3.
Ranjini. Jewels of the Doctrine. Sri Satguru Publications.
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Ito, Shinjo (2009). Shinjo:Reflections. Somerset Hall Press.
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Skilton, Andrew (1997). A Concise History of Buddhism. Windhorse Publications. ISBN 0904766926. http://books.google.com/books?id=GEKd4iqH3C0C&dq=history+of+buddhism.
Smith, Huston; Phillip Novak (2003). Buddhism: A Concise Introduction. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 978-0060730673.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2001). Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha (3rd ed., rev.).
Thich Nhat Hanh (1974), The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Broadway Books ISBN 0-7679-0369-2.
Thurman, Robert A. F. (translator) (1976). Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti: Mahayana Scripture. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00601-3.
White, Kenneth (2005). The Role of Bodhicitta in Buddhist Enlightenment Including a Translation into English of Bodhicitta-sastra, Benkemmitsu-nikyoron, and Sammaya-kaijo. The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-5985-5.
Williams, Paul (1989). Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations. London: Routledge.
Williams, Paul (ed.) (2005). Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, 8 volumes, Routledge, London & New York.
Williams, Paul with Anthony Tribe (2000). Buddhist Thought (London: Routledge). ISBN 0-415-20701-0. Retrieved 29 Nov 2008 from "Google Books".
Yamamoto, Kosho (translation), revised and edited by Dr. Tony Page. The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra. (Nirvana Publications 1999-2000).
Yin Shun, Yeung H. Wing (translator) (1998). The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-133-5.
^ Guerriero G. Vertebrate sex steroid receptors: evolution, ligands, and neurodistribution. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Apr;1163:154-68. Review. PMID: 19456336
^ Thakur MK, Paramanik V. Role of steroid hormone coregulators in health and disease. Horm Res. 2009;71(4):194-200. Epub 2009 Mar 4. Review. PMID: 19258710
^ Brook CG. Mechanism of puberty. Horm Res. 1999;51 Suppl 3:52-4. Review. PMID: 10592444
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^ Comparative metabolism of female sex steroids in normal and chronically inflamed gingiva of the dog T. M. A. ElAttar11Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden AND A. Hugoson11Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden1Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. and Department of Periodontology, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden
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^ Engineers' Council for Professional Development. (1947). Canons of ethics for engineers
^ a b c d e f g h Engineers' Council for Professional Development definition on Encyclopaedia Britannica (Includes Britannica article on Engineering)
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^ a b Imperial College]: Studying engineering at Imperial: Engineering courses are offered in five main branches of engineering: aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. There are also courses in computing science, software engineering, information systems engineering, materials science and engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering.
^ Van Every, Kermit E. (1986). "Aeronautical engineering". Encyclopedia Americana. 1. Grolier Incorporated. pp. 226.
^ Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs - the History of a Great Mind. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-11-6.
^ University of Edinburgh Welcome to Chemical Engineering, which is celebrating 50 years this academic year, is part of the School of Engineering and Electronics (SEE), which includes the other three main engineering disciplines of electrical and electronic engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering.
^ Arbe, Katrina (2001.05.07). "PDM: Not Just for the Big Boys Anymore". ThomasNet. http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2001/05/pdm_not_just_fo.html.
^ Arbe, Katrina (2003.05.22). "The Latest Chapter in CAD Software Evaluation". ThomasNet. http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2003/05/the_latest_chap.html.
^ PDF on Human Development
^ MDG info pdf
^ Leger Marketing (2006). Sponsorship effect seen in survey of most-trusted professions: pollster. http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=b7647f97-f370-451e-9506-2f116da2c6a1&k=38584&p=2. , pg. 2, The occupations most-trusted by Canadians, according to a poll by Leger Marketing... Engineering 88 per cent of respondents...
^ APEGBC - Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of BC
^ Vincenti, Walter G. (1993). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. Johns Hopkins University Press.
^ Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, YC Fung and P. Tong. World Scientific. 2001.
^ a b Bjerklie, David. “The Art of Renaissance Engineering.” MIT’s Technology Review Jan./Feb.1998: 54-9. Article explores the concept of the “artist-engineer”, an individual who used his artistic talent in engineering. Quote from article: Da Vinci reached the pinnacle of “artist-engineer”-dom, Quote2: “It was Leonardo da Vinci who initiated the most ambitious expansion in the role of artist-engineer, progressing from astute observer to inventor to theoretician.” (Bjerklie 58)
^ Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips. Ellen M. McGee and G. Q. Maguire, Jr. from Boston University
^ IEEE technical paper: Foreign parts (electronic body implants).by Evans-Pughe, C. quote from summary:Feeling threatened by cyborgs?
^ Institute of Medicine and Engineering: Mission statement The mission of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) is to stimulate fundamental research at the interface between biomedicine and engineering/physical/computational sciences leading to innovative applications in biomedical research and clinical practice.
^ IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering...
^ a b Royal Academy of Engineering and Academy of Medical Sciences: Systems Biology: a vision for engineering and medicine in pdf: quote1: Systems Biology is an emerging methodology that has yet to be defined quote2: It applies the concepts of systems engineering to the study of complex biological systems through iteration between computational and/or mathematical modelling and experimentation.
^ Science Museum of Minnesota: Online Lesson 5a; The heart as a pump
^ Minnesota State University emuseum: Bones act as levers
^ UC Berkeley News: UC researchers create model of brain's electrical storm during a seizure
^ a b Lehigh University project: We wanted to use this project to demonstrate the relationship between art and architecture and engineering
^ a b National Science Foundation:The Art of Engineering: Professor uses the fine arts to broaden students' engineering perspectives
^ MIT World:The Art of Engineering: Inventor James Dyson on the Art of Engineering: quote: A member of the British Design Council, James Dyson has been designing products since graduating from the Royal College of Art in 1970.
^ University of Texas at Dallas:The Institute for Interactive Arts and Engineering
^ Aerospace Design: The Art of Engineering from NASA’s Aeronautical Research
^ Princeton U: Robert Maillart's Bridges: The Art of Engineering: quote:no doubt that Maillart was fully conscious of the aesthetic implications...
^ quote:..the tools of artists and the perspective of engineers..
^ Drew U: user website: cites Bjerklie paper
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Notes
1. ^ a b c d e f Rathus, Spencer A., Jeffrey S. Nevid, and Lois Fichner-Rathus. 2007. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity. Allyn & Bacon.
2. ^ Boccadoro L., Carulli S., (2008) Il posto dell'amore negato. Sessualità e psicopatologie segrete (The place of the denied love. Sexuality and secret psychopathologies - Abstract). Tecnoprint Editrice, Ancona. ISBN 978-88-95554-03-7
3. ^ Deleuze and Guattari (1972) Anti-Oedipus pp. 322, 114-5
4. ^ a b c Ellen Ross, Rayna Rapp Sex and Society: A Research Note from Social History and Anthropology Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan., 1981), pp. 51-72
5. ^ Kathleen Doheny: 10 Surprising Health Benefits of Sex. From WebMD. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
6. ^ Sexually Transmitted Infections Overview. From University of California Santa Barbara. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
7. ^ Dawn Stacey: Contraception. About.com. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
8. ^ . Escoffier, Jeffrey. (Editor): Sexual Revolution. Running Press, 2003. ISBN 1560255250. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
9. ^ Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 - The New York Times, February 5, 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
10. ^ Joane Nagel (August 2000). "ETHNICITY AND SEXUALITY". Annual Review of Sociology 26: 107–133. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.107.
11. ^ Joane Nagel (2001). "Racial, Ethnic, and National Boundaries: Sexual Intersections and Symbolic Interactions". Symbolic Interaction 24 (2): 123–139. doi:10.1525/si.2001.24.2.123.
12. ^ Think Sex from TheAge.com.au. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
13. ^ John Russon (2009). Bearing Witness to Epiphany: Persons, Things, and the Nature of Erotic Life. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-2504-7. http://www.amazon.com/Bearing-Witness-Epiphany-Contemporary-Continental/dp/143842504X.
14. ^ What is Psychosexual Development? Pschology from About.com. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
15. ^ B. F. Skinner and behaviorism. From essortment. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
16. ^ Buss, D.M. (2002) Human mating strategies. Samdunfsokonemen, 4: 48-58.
17. ^ Farrell, W. (1988) Why Men Are The Way They Are, New York: Berkley Books
18. ^ The Female Fertility Cycle. From SHCS. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
19. ^ The Male Reproductive Cycle. From Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
20. ^ My Fertile Days. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
21. ^ Anderson SE, Dallal GE, Must A (April 2003). "Relative weight and race influence average age at menarche: results from two nationally representative surveys of US girls studied 25 years apart". Pediatrics 111 (4 Pt 1): 844–50. doi:10.1542/peds.111.4.844. PMID 12671122. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/111/4/844?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&minscore=5000&resourcetype=HWCIT.
22. ^ Late-in-life Pregnancy. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
23. ^ "Fertility Treatment Less Successful After 35". WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/content/article/89/100183.htm. Retrieved July 4 2006.
24. ^ a b Effect of Age on Male Fertility Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology. Volume, Number 3, August 1991. Sherman J. Silber, M.D.
25. ^ Kidd SA, Eskenazi B, Wyrobek AJ (February 2001). "Effects of male age on semen quality and fertility: a review of the literature". Fertil. Steril. 75 (2): 237–48. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(00)01679-4. PMID 11172821. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0015-0282(00)01679-4.
26. ^ Sex. From Likeitis.org. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
27. ^ Miller, R., Perlman, D., and Brehm, S.S. Intimate Relationships, 4th Edition, McGrawHill Companies.
28. ^ Tall men 'top husband stakes'. BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
29. ^ Daniel Nettle: Women’s height, reproductive success and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in modern humans. The Royal Society. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
30. ^ SIRC Guide to Flirting. What Social Science can tell you about flirting and how to do it. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
31. ^ Greene, Robert (2003). The Art of Seduction. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-200119-8.
32. ^ "BDSM Terms". A Slave's Heart. http://www.aslavesheart.com/dictionary.html. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
33. ^ Islam Question and Answer - The reasons for capital punishment in Islam
34. ^ ILGA:7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts
35. ^ Homosexuality and Islam - ReligionFacts
36. ^ Sex and Relationships - Sex - 4Health from Channel 4
37. ^ Improve your orgasm: you may have thought your sexual pleasure was the one thing that couldn't get any better. Think again - Sexual Fitness - physiology | Men's Fitness | Find Articles at BNET.com
38. ^ Heterosexual Sex. World Sex Explorer. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
39. ^ Sex Offenders and Sex Offenses: Overview. From FindLaw. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
40. ^ Adultery extra marital sex. From MarriagePartner.com. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
41. ^ Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
42. ^ a b APA Help Center
43. ^ What is Nature
44. ^ Autosexuality. From Global Oneness. Retrieved 13 October 2009
45. ^ Sex Offenses and Offenders. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
46. ^ Erwin J. Haeberle: A Brief History of Sexology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
47. ^ a b c Foucault, M. (1976) The History of Sexuality, Vol I: The Will to Knowledge
48. ^ a b Weeks, Jeffrey (1989). Sexuality and its Discontents; Meanings, Myths, and Modern Sexualities. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04503-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=QzkTiK9oQVIC. pp.176-8
49. ^ MARY WEISMANTEL Moche Sex Pots: Reproduction and Temporality in Ancient South America American Anthropologist September 2004, Vol. 106, No. 3, pp. 495-505
50. ^ a b Parker, Richard G. [Bodies and Pleasures: On the Construction of Erotic Meanings in Contemporary Brazil] Anthropology & Humanism Quarterly. June 1989, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 58-64
51. ^ Gayle Rubin (1984) Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality
52. ^ Toward a Conversation about Sex in Feminism: A Modest Proposal Vance, Carole S. [Pleasure and danger: Toward a politics of sexuality]
53. ^ Cáceres The production of knowledge on sexuality in the AIDS era.in Aggleton, Peter; Parker, Richard Bordeaux; Barbosa, Regina Maria (2000). Framing the sexual subject: the politics of gender, sexuality, and power. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21838-8. pp.242-3
54. ^ a b Strozier, Robert M. (2002) Foucault, Subjectivity, and Identity: : Historical Constructions of Subject and Self pp.101-2, 108, 118-120
55. ^ Foucault 1976, p.154-5
56. ^ Foucault 1976, p.157
^ Webster's definition of Wisdom (relevant sense 1)
^ Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 607–62.
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^ a b c Harter, Andrew C. (2004). "8". in Peterson, Christopher and Seligman, Martin E. P.. Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 181-196. ISBN 0-19-516701-5.
^ a b Orwoll, L.; Perlmutter, M. (1990). R. J. Sternberg. ed. Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 160–177. ISBN 0521367182.
^ Neurobiology of Wisdom: A Literature Overview.
^ Peterson, Christopher; Seligman, Martin E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-19-516701-5.
^ Dhammapada v.256
^ Dhammapada v.257
^ Dhammapada v.258
^ Dhammapada v.268-9
^ a b Faulkes, Anthony (transl. and ed.) (1987). Edda (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3
^ Larrington, Carolyne (transl. and ed.) (1996). Poetic Edda. Oxford World's Classics. ISBN 0-19-283946-2
^ Plato. "Apology." The Republic and other Works New York: Anchor, 1989. p. 450. ISBN 0-385-09497-3
^ Johnny Morgan, Inuit Elder: Silatunirmut, 1991
^ MAXWELL, Nicholas.
Freduci Philomathis, "What is this thing called wisdom?", Journal Behind the State of the Art, Maybell, Colorado, 2006, p. 1.





Further reading
• Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, and Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1.
• Gilbert SF (2000). Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc.. ISBN 0-87893-243-7.
• Maynard-Smith, J. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press, 1978.
• Arnqvist, G. & Rowe, L. (2005) Sexual conflict. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0691122172

• Allen, James Sloan, Worldly Wisdom: Great Books and the Meanings of Life, Frederic C. Beil, 2008. ISBN 978-1-929490-35-6
• Miller, James, L., "Measures of Wisdom: The Cosmic Dance in Classical and Christian Antiquity", University of Toronto Press, 1986. ISBN 0802025536
• Velasquez, Susan McNeal, "Beyond Intellect: Journey Into the Wisdom of Your Intuitive Mind", Row Your Boat Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0979641008

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ISBN 0739102508. ^ "Philosophy of Religion .info - Glossary - Theism, Atheism, and Agonisticism". Philosophy of Religion .info. http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/definitions.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16. ^ "Theism - definition of thesim by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". TheFreeDictionary. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/theism. Retrieved 2008-07-16. ^ The Oxford Companion To World Mythology (David Leeming, Oxford University Press, 2005, page 153) ^ See Swami Bhaskarananda, Essentials of Hinduism (Viveka Press 2002) ISBN 1-884852-04-1 ^ Sri Granth: Sri Guru Granth Sahib ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Great Britain: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-618-68000-4. ^ Sagan, Carl (1996). The Demon Haunted World p.278. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-40946-9. ^ Boyer, Pascal (2001). Religion Explained,. New York: Basic Books. pp. 142–243. ISBN 0-465-00696-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=wreF80OHTicC&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=boyer+modern+soap+opera&source=web&ots=NxBK3w-s5u&sig=_zo19-nO6z8BS9XPTudCnjH8ybg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA142,M1. ^ du Castel, Bertrand; Jurgensen, Timothy M. (2008). Computer Theology,. Austin, Texas: Midori Press. pp. 221–222. ISBN 0-9801821-1-5. ^ Barrett, Justin (1996) (PDF). Conceptualizing a Nonnatural Entity: Anthropomorphism in God Concepts. http://www.yale.edu/cogdevlab/People/Lab_Members/Frank/Frank%27s%20papers%20pdfs%20/Frank%27s%20articles/conceptualizingnonnaturalentity.pdf. ^ Rossano, Matt (2007) (PDF). Supernaturalizing Social Life: Religion and the Evolution of Human Cooperation. http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/mrossano/recentpubs/Supernaturalizing.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-25. ^ National Geographic Family Reference Atlas of the World p
^ Info on Bodhgaya ^ "Buddhism". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. ^ "Buddhism and Vedanta - a comparative study". http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/vonglasenapp/wheel002.html. ^ Major Religions Ranked by Size ^ U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2004. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/ Accessed 20 September 2008. ^ Garfinkel, Perry. "Buddha Rising," National Geographic Dec. 2005: 88–109. ^ CIA - The World Factbook ^ Robinson et al., Buddhist Religions, page xx; Philosophy East and West, vol 54, ps 269f; Williams, Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, 1st ed., 1989, pp. 275f (2nd ed., 2008, p. 266) ^ UNESCO, Lumbini is the birthplace of the Lord Buddha, Gethin Foundations, p. 19, which states that in the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor Ashoka determined that Lumbini was the Buddha's birthplace and thus installed a pillar there with the inscription: "... this is where the Buddha, sage of the Śākyas, was born." ^ For instance, Gethin Foundations, p. 14, states: "The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local chieftain—a rājan—in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now the Indian-Nepalese border." However, Professor Gombrich (Theravada Buddhism, p. 1) and the old but specialized study by Edward Thomas, The Life of the Buddha, ascribe the name Siattha/fitta to later sources. ^ The Life of the Buddha: The Four Sights, "On the first visit he encountered an old man. On the next excursion he encountered a sick man. On his third excursion, he encountered a corpse being carried to cremation. Such sights sent home to him the prevalence of suffering in the world and that he too was subject to old age, sickness and death. On his fourth excursion, however, he encountered a holy man, or sadhu, apparently content and at peace with the world." ^ Wild mind Buddhist Meditation, The Buddha's biography: Spiritual Quest and Awakening ^ Keown, Dictionary Of Buddhism, p. 267 ^ Skilton, Concise, p. 25 ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism Vol. 1, p. 352 ^ Lopez (1995). Buddhism in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 16. ^ Carrithers, Michael. "The Buddha," in the Oxford University paperback Founders of Faith, 1986, p. 10. ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, using कर्मन् as input ^ Journal of Buddhist Ethics: "Zen as a Social Ethics of Responsiveness" (PDF), T.P. Kasulis, Ohio State University ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 40 ^ Sanskrit-English, Dictionary, with फल as input ^ Dr. Richard K. Payne (ed.), Tantric Buddhism in East Asia, Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2006, p. 74 ^ Lopez, Story of Buddhism. p. 239 ^ Lopez, Buddhism. p. 248 ^ Keown, Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 107 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 34 ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume Two), p. 711 ^ The 31 Planes of Existence (PDF), Ven. Suvanno Mahathera ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 33 ^ André Bareau, Les Sectes bouddhiques du Petit Véhicule, École Française d'Extrême-Orient, Saigon, 1955, pp. 212–223: the top of p. 212 says "Voici les thèses des Theravâdin du Mahâvihâra:" ("Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara"); then begins a numbered list of doctrines over the following pages, including on p. 223 "Il n'y a que cinq (pañca) destinées (gati) ... les Asura Kâlakañjika ont même couleur (samânavanna), même nourriture (samânabhoga), mêmes aliments (samânâhâra), même durée de vie (samânâyuka) que les Peta avec lesquels ... ils se marient (âvâhavivâham gacchanti). Quant aux Vepacittiparisa, ils ont même couleur, même nourriture, mêmes aliments, même durée de vie que les Dieux, avec lesquels ils se marient." ("There are only five destinies ... the kalakanjika asuras have the same colour, same nourishment, same foods, same lifespan as the petas, with whom ... they marry. As for the Vepacittiparisa, they have the same colour, same nourishment, same foods, same lifespan as the gods, with whom they marry.") ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Vol. 1, p. 377 ^ The Connected Discourses of the Buddha. A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Translator. Wisdom Publications. ^ Thera, Piyadassi (1999). "Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta". The Book of Protection. Buddhist Publication Society. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.piya.html. In what is said in Theravada to be the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, which was given to the five ascetics with whom he had practiced austerities. He talks about the Middle Way, the noble eightfold path and the Four Noble Truths. ^ See for example: The Four Noble Truths ^ Gethin, Foundations, p. 60 ^ (2004), Volume One, p. 296 ^ Harvey, Introduction, p. 47 ^ Hinnels, John R. (1998). The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions. London: Penguin Books. pp. 393f. ISBN 0140514805. ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 92 ^ Eliot, Japanese Buddhism, Edward Arnold, London, 1935, p. 60 ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with सम्यक् as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with दृष्टि as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with संकल्प as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with वाच् as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with कर्मन् as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with आजीवन as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with व्यायाम as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with स्मृति as input ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with समाधि as input ^ Eliot, Japanese Buddhism, Edward Arnold, London, 1935, pages 59f ^ Kohn, Shambhala, pp. 131, 143 ^ Jeffrey Po, “Is Buddhism a Pessimistic Way of Life?” ^ Rahula, Walpola (1959). "Chapter 2". What the Buddha Taught. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3031-3. ^ Prebish, Charles (1993). Historical Dictionary of Buddhism. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-2698-4. ^ Keown, Damien (2003). Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860560-9. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Not-Self Strategy, See Point 3 – The Canon quote Thanissaro Bhikkhu draws attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta. ^ This twelve nidana scheme can be found, for instance, in multiple discourses in the Samyutta Nikaya's chapter 12, Nidana Vagga (e.g., see SN 12.2, Thanissaro, 1997a). Other "applications" of what might be termed "mundane dependent origination" include the nine-nidana scheme of DN 15 (e.g., Thanissaro, 1997b) and the ten-nidana scheme of SN 12.65 (e.g., Thanissaro, 1997c). So-called "transcendental dependent origination" (also involving twelve nidanas) is described in SN 12.23 (e.g., see Bodhi, 1995). In addition, DN 15 describes an eleven-nidana scheme (starting with "feeling") that leads to interpersonal suffering ("the taking up of sticks and knives; conflicts, quarrels, and disputes; accusations, divisive speech, and lies"). ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, page 56 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 57 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 58 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 59 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 60 ^ Christian Lindtner, Master of Wisdom. Dharma Publishing 1997, p. 324. ^ Dan Lusthaus, "What is and isn't Yogacara" ^ a b Welch, Practice of Chinese Buddhism, Harvard, 1967, p. 395 ^ The Theravada commentary on the Nettipakarana, ascribed to Dhammapala, says (Pali pamāṇa is equivalent to Sanskrit pramāṇa): "na hi pāḷito aññaṃ pamāṇataraṃ atthi (quoted in Pali Text Society edition of the Nettipakarana, 1902, p. xi) which Nanamoli translates as: "for there is no other criterion beyond a text" (The Guide, Pali Text Society, 1962, p. xi ^ MN 72 (Thanissaro, 1997). For further discussion of the context in which these statements was made, see Thanissaro (2004). ^ "Experience is ... the path most elaborated in early Buddhism. The doctrine on the other hand was kept low. The Buddha avoided doctrinal formulations concerning the final reality as much as possible in order to prevent his followers from resting content with minor achievements on the path in which the absence of the final experience could be substituted by conceptual understanding of the doctrine or by religious faith, a situation which sometimes occurs, in both varieties, in the context of Hindu systems of doctrine", Karel Werner, Mysticism and Indian Spirituality. In Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic. Curzon Press, 1989: p. 27. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu, "Introduction to the Avyakata Samyutta" ^ a b Gadjin M. Nagao, Madhyamika and Yogachara. Leslie S. Kawamura, translator, SUNY Press, Albany 1991, pp. 40–41. ^ Sue Hamilton, Early Buddhism. Routledge, 2000, page 135. ^ Philosophy East and West. Vol. 26, p. 138 ^ The Sovereign All-Creating Mind tr. by E.K. Neumaier-Dargyay, pp. 111–112. ^ Professor C. D. Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 2005, p. 274) ^ A. K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Third edition published by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 2000, pages 132-133. ^ David J. Kalupahana, A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuities and Discontinuities. University of Hawaii Press, 1992, page 43: [1]. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. 2007, page 109. ^ Williams, Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, 1989, p. 2 ^ Kalama Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya III.65 ^ Spoken Sanskrit, Dictionary, with निर्वन as input ^ raga, Pali-English Dictionary, The Pali Text Society ^ dosa, Pali-English Dictionary, The Pali Text Society ^ moha, Pali-English Dictionary, The Pali Text Society ^ a b Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1997, p. 67 ^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2007. p. 611 ^ Access to Insight, a Theravada Buddhist website, discusses Buddha Eras ^ Gautama Buddha discusses tne Maitreya Buddha in the Tipitaka ^ Kogen Mizuno, Essentials of Buddhism, Shunju-sha, 1972, English translation, Kosei, Tokyo, 1996, p. 57 ^ Dispeller of Delusion. Vol. II. Pali Text Society, p. 184 ^ Coomaraswamy, Ananda (1975). Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. Boston: University Books, Inc.. p. 225. ^ Cook, Hua-yen Buddhism, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977, p. 110f ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Vol. 1, page 351 ^ Harvey, p. 170 ^ Bhikku, Thanissaro (2001). "Refuge". An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. Access to Insight. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/refuge.html#goi. ^ Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha, tr. Nanamoli, rev. Bodhi, Wisdom Publications, 1995, pp. 708f ^ Professor C.D. Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Sri Satguru Publications, Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica Series No. 238, Delhi, 2005, p. 83 ^ Professor C.D. Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi, 2005, p. 82 ^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey, ed., Buddhism. Continuum, 2001, page 187. ^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey, ed., Buddhism. Continuum, 2001, pages 195-196. ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 89. He is quoting Carrithers. ^ B. Alan Wallace, Contemplative Science. Columbia University Press, 2007, p. 81. ^ Welch, Practice of Chinese Buddhism, Harvard, 1967, p. 396 ^ Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 144. ^ Damien Keown, Charles S Prebish, editors, Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge, 2007. p. 502 ^ Sarah Shaw, Buddhist Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pāli Canon. Routledge, 2006, page 13. Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are addressed to "bhikkhave," but that in this context the terms is more generic than simply (male) "monks" and refers to all practitioners, and that this is confirmed by Buddhaghosa. ^ According to Charles S. Prebish (in his Historical Dictionary of Buddhism, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1993, p. 287): "Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that does not depend on sacred texts, that provides the potential for direct realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature possessed by each sentient being ...". ^ Prebish comments (op. cit., p. 244): "It presumes that sitting in meditation itself (i.e. zazen) is an expression of Buddha nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes (Zen Masterclass, Godsfield Press, 2002, pp. 12–13): "... practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been covered over by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a state that can occur instantly when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations." ^ (Critical Sermons on the Zen Tradition, Hisamatsu Shin'ichi, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2002, passim) Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder, Linji, Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our true way of being in such direct expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. It is independent of words or letters and transmitted apart from scriptural teaching. Buddhism doesn't really need scriptures. It is just our direct awakening to Self ..." (Hisamatsu, op. cit., p. 46). ^ Kosho Uchiyama, Opening the Hand of Thought: Approach to Zen, Penguin Books, New York, 1993, p. 98 ^ Harvey, Introduction, pp. 165f ^ Williams, Mahayana Buddhism, Routledge, 1st ed., 1989, p. 185 ^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Buddhism, p. 781 . ^ Gethin, Sayings of the Buddha, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. xv ^ a b c Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism: The cultural context. Accessed 19-07-2009 ^ a b Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period (2nd millennium - 7th century BCE; Challenges to Brahmanism (6th - 2nd century BCE; Early Hinduism (2nd century BCE - 4th century CE). Accessed 19-07-2009 ^ Warder, A.K. 2000. Indian Buddhism. P.32 ^ Y. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi, ISBN 8120808150 Page 18. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times." ^ S. Cromwell Crawford, review of L. M. Joshi, Brahmanism, Buddhism and Hinduism, Philosophy East and West (1972): "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times." ^ “This confirms that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was accepted by non-vedics like Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have borrowed the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics [..] accepted the doctrine of rebirth as supreme postulate or article of faith.” Masih, page 37. ^ Karel Werner, The Longhaired Sage in The Yogi and the Mystic. Karel Werner, ed., Curzon Press, 1989, page 34. "Rahurkar speaks of them as belonging to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also found evidence for two distinct approaches to the spiritual dimension in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them particularly in the older Upanishads, in early Buddhism, and in some later literature." ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University - Press : UK ISBN 0521438780 - “The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism developed specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very possible that the karmas and reincarnation entered the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions.” Page 86. ^ Padmanabh S. Jaini 2001 “Collected Paper on Buddhist Studies” Motilal Banarsidass Publ 576 pages ISBN 8120817761: "Yajnavalkya’s reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka (a reluctance not shown on any other occasion) can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was, like that of the transmigration of soul, of non-brahmanical origin. In view of the fact that this doctrine is emblazoned on almost every page of sramana scriptures, it is highly probable that it was derived from them." Page 51. ^ Govind Chandra Pande, (1994) Life and Thought of Sankaracarya, Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 8120811046 : Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic thinking and tried to incorporate these ideals of Karma, Samsara and Moksa into the vedic thought implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal. Page 135. ^ "The sudden appearance of this theory [of karma] in a full-fledged form is likely to be due, as already pointed out, to an impact of the wandering muni-and-shramana-cult, coming down from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time." Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, Early Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1998, page 76. ^ Warder, A.K. 2000. Indian Buddhism. P.30-32 ^ Warder, A.K. 2000. Indian Buddhism. P.39 ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. P.33 ^ Dharmacarini Manishini, Western Buddhist Review. Accessed at http://www.westernbuddhistreview.com/vol4/kamma_in_context.html ^ Warder, A.K. 2000. Indian Buddhism. P.33 ^ Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught, pages 9-10. ^ "The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the Veda, is (jokingly) etymologized as the 'non-meditator' (ajhāyaka). Brahmins who have memorized the three Vedas (tevijja) really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment - what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of that night - which constitutes the true 'three knowledges.'" R.F. Gombrich in Paul Williams, ed., "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies." Taylor and Francis 2006, page 120. ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 85. ^ Richard Francis Gombrich, How Buddhism began: the conditioned genesis of the early teachings Continuum International Publishing Group, 1996, pages 38-39 ^ Michael Carrithers, The Buddha, 1983, pages 41-42. Found in Founders of Faith, Oxford University Press, 1986. ^ Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge 2007, page 21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Vedic religion. Accessed 19-07-2009 ^ Warder, A.K. 2000. Indian Buddhism. P.35 ^ A History of Indian Buddhism - Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) - Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, 1993, p. 7 ^ Mitchell, Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 34 & table of contents ^ Skorupski, Buddhist Forum, vol I, Heritage, Delhi/SOAS, London, 1990, p. 5; Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, vol 21 (1998), part 1, pp. 4, 11 ^ see also the book Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, University of Hawai'i Press, by Dr Gregory Schopen ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, Buddhist ^ Journal of the Pāli Text Society, volume XVI, p. 105) ^ Janice J. Nattier and Charles S. Prebish, 1977. Mahāsāṅghika Origins: the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism in History of Religions, Vol. 16, pp. 237–272 ^ Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, p. 74 ^ a b "Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. ^ Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge. p. 485. ^ A History of Indian Buddhism - Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) - Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, 1993, p. 8 ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2004, page 494 ^ ‘The south (of India) was then vigorously creative in producing Mahayana Sutras’ – AK Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edition, 1999, p. 335. ^ Mahayanism in all probability germinated in the south, where the offshoots of the Mahasanghikas had their centres of activities, but where it appeared more developed was a place somewhere in the eastern part of India, a place where the Sarvastivadins were predominant.' Buddhist Sects in India, Nalinaksha Dutt, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Delhi), 2nd Edition, 1978, p. 243) ^ ‘The sudden appearance of large numbers of (Mahayana) teachers and texts (in North India in the second century AD) would seem to require some previous preparation and development, and this we can look for in the South.’ AK Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edition, 1999 p. 335. ^ A History of Indian Buddhism - Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) - Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, 1993, p. 8,9 ^ Peter Harvey, "An Introduction to Buddhism." Cambridge University Press, 1993, page 95. ^ Dan Lusthaus, Buddhist Phenomenology. Routledge, 2002, pages 236-237. ^ Peter Harvey, "An Introduction to Buddhism." Cambridge University Press, 1993, page 113. "There were no great Indian teachers associated with this strand of thought." ^ A History of Indian Buddhism - Hirakawa Akira (translated and edited by Paul Groner) - Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, 1993, p. 9 ^ Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, Routledge, 2nd ed, 2006, page 135 ^ Carol E. Henderson, Culture and Customs of India. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, page 42. ^ Joseph B. Tamney in William H. Swatos, editor, Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Rowman Altamira, 1998, page 68. ^ Chinese Cultural Studies: The Spirits of Chinese Religion ^ Windows on Asia - Chinese Religions ^ Religions and Beliefs in China ^ SACU Religion in China ^ Index-China Chinese Philosophies and religions ^ AskAsia - Buddhism in China ^ BUDDHISM AND ITS SPREAD ALONG THE SILK ROAD ^ U.S. Department of States - International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau) ^ State Attitudes to Religion (PDF), The Atlas of Religion, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer, openDemocracy.net ^ Center for Religious Freedom - Survey Files ^ The Range of Religious Freedom ^ Garfinkel, Perry (December 2005). "Buddha Rising". National Geographic: 88–109. ^ a b c Major Branches of Buddhism, Adherents.com, retrieved on 2008-01-15 ^ Philosophy East and West, volume 54, page 270 ^ Keown, Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 1996, page 12 ^ Smith, Buddhism; Juergensmeyer, Oxford Handbook. ^ "Tibetan Buddhism". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tibetan%20buddhism. Retrieved 2007-07-07. ^ (Harvey, 1990); (Gombrich,1984); Gethin (1998), pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: (1) "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; (2) "The East Asian tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, (3) "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson (1982) divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" (which pertains to Early Buddhism in India); and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism Outside of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia," "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area," "East Asian Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West; Penguin handbook of Living Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^ See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, 1987, volume 2, pages 440ff ^ A Comparative Study of the Schools, Tan Swee Eng ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier." ^ Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. (1958/1988), "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism disappears as [an] organized religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40. ^ Gethin, Foundations, page 1 ^ Clarke & Beyer, The World's Religions, Routledge, 2009, page 86 ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One), pages 430, 435 ^ Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231126190. ^ Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, page 89 ^ A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edition (2000) ^ Eliot, Japanese Buddhism, Edward Arnold, London, 1935, page 16 ^ Gethin, Sayings of the Buddha, Oxford University Press, 2008, page xiv ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XVI, page 114 ^ Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press, 1995, page 9. ^ Indian Buddhism, 3rd edition, page 4 ^ a b MacMillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 494 ^ Thelema & Buddhism (PDF) in Journal of Thelemic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn 2007, pp. 18-32
• Dorf, Richard, ed (2005). The Engineering Handbook (2 ed.). Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 0849315867.
• Billington, David P. (1996-06-05). The Innovators: The Engineering Pioneers Who Made America Modern. Wiley; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-471-14026-0.
• Petroski, Henry (1992-03-31). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73416-3.
• Petroski, Henry (1994-02-01). The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday Artifacts-From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers-Came to be as They are. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74039-2.
• Lord, Charles R. (2000-08-15). Guide to Information Sources in Engineering. Libraries Unlimited. doi:10.1336/1563086999. ISBN 1-563-08699-9.
• Vincenti, Walter G. (1993-02-01). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-80184588-2.
• Hill, Donald R. (1973-12-31) [1206]. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Pakistan Hijara Council. ISBN 969-8016-25-2.
The Producer's Business Handbook by John J. Lee, Jr., Focal Press (2000) From Reel to Deal by Dov S-S Simens, Warner Books (2003

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• Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Theories of Beauty to the Mid-Nineteenth Century
• beautycheck.de/english Regensburg University - Characteristics of beautiful faces
• American Sexuality Magazine
• Glossario di sessuologia clinica - Glossary of clinical sexology
• History of Surveys of Sexual Behavior from Encyclopedia of Behavioral Statistics
• International Encyclopedia of Sexuality full text
• Janssen, D. F., Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas [full text]
• National Sexuality Resource Center
• Durex Global Sex Survey 2005 at data360.org
• POPLINE is a searchable database of the world's reproductive health literature.
• The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality at the Kinsey Institute
• The Sexuality and Rights Institute
• The South and Southeast Asia Resource Centre on Sexuality
• HIV/AIDS at the Open Directory Project
• AIDSinfo – HIV/AIDS Treatment Information, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
• UConcept of God in Christianity Concept of God in Islam
• God Christian perspective God in Judaism Hindu Concept of God Jewish Literacy Mystical view of God Relation of God to the Universe
• Portal to all Federal HIV/AIDS information – Office of HIV/AIDS Po
• Orange Tip Editions Buddhism in everyday life Religion and Spirituality: Buddhism at Open Directory Project "Buddhism - objects, art and history".
• Asia. Victoria and Albert Museum. http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/asia/asia_features/buddhism/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-06
• Buddhist texts at Sacred Texts.com Ethical Democracy Journal - Notes on Budhism [2] Information Blog on Buddha's Teachings
• MeSH Sex+Steroid+Hormones
Sex+hormones at eMedicine Dictionary
• National Society of Professional Engineers article on Licensure and Qualifications for the Practice of Engineering
• National Academy of Engineering (NAE)
• American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE)
• The US Library of Congress Engineering in History bibliography
• ICES: Institute for Complex Engineered Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
• History of engineering bibliography at University of Minnesota
• http://www.discoverpolicing.org
• Metropolitan Police history
• http://www.newscotlandyard.police.uk/foi/pdfs/other_information/corporate/operational_uniform_and_equipment.pdf
• http://www.west-midlands.police.uk/publications/freedom-of-information/policy.asp?id=144
• http://www.gmp.police.uk/mainsite/pages/pcsouniform.htm,ts=2
• http://www.policelink.com
• "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police_officer"
• Monastic life and Monastery of Provence in France
• "Monk" article in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
• Hitoryfish.net Texts and articles on Western Christian Monks, Monastics, and the Monastic Life.
• Full Text + Illustrations, Abbot Gasquet's English Monastic Life
Monasticism Synopsis on Orthodox Church in America's Website (www.oca.org) An Orthodox novice Photo from Valaam Monastery, Russia Contemplative spirituality in the tradition of the medieval hermits who settled on Mount Carmel. Immaculate Heart of Mary's Hermitage - Website of a Hermit of Saint Bruno Vocation-Network.org information about Catholic religious communities and life as a sister, brother, or priest. VocationMatch.com helps those discerning a Catholic religious vocation sort through options and find the order or vocation that may be right for them. DigitalVocationGuide.org digital edition of VISION, the annual Catholic religious vocation discernment gui
• A Brief History of Singing
• Vocal Warmups
• Singing scales and warmups: Harmonised accompaniments for singing practice
• Vocal Training
• Singing Voice
• Civil Engineering Constructors Association
• School of Computing, Information Technology and Engineering
• Engineering America
• The British Library book industry guides
• International Publisher's organisation
• characteristic in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913
• characteristic in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911
• Social site for writers and publishers only
• Forum and social network for writers and journalist
• http://www.recordproduction.com American Music Producers, http://www.imusicproducers.com
• List of Film Production Companies Scouting New Screenplays and Movie Concepts
• Producers Guild of America Frequently Asked Questions
• ALIA Qualifications and careers Friends of Libraries USA Occupational Outlook Handbook: Librarians SLA's Competencies for Information Professionals Library and Information Science Wiki Some Old Egyptian Librarians, Ernest Gushing Richardson, Charles Sribners, 1911
• Composer societies at the Open Directory Project
• Composers at the Open Directory Project
Composers and arrangers at the Open Directory Project
Miss World Official Website
http://completewellbeing.com/article/purpose-of-sex-procreation-recreation/
Revision history of God

00:45, 29 November 2009 BeneharoMencey (talk | contribs) (33,342 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 04:34, 21 November 2009 Ekwos (talk | contribs) (33,163 bytes) (→Distribution of belief in God: The map clearly puts Catholic Poland and Portugal on par with Orthodox Greece) (cur) (prev) 09:35, 8 November 2009 SwK (talk | contribs) (33,123 bytes) (Undid revision 324549887 by Elitehaxor7 (talk)) (cur) (prev) 23:57, 7 November 2009 Elitehaxor7 (talk | contribs) m (33,215 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 23:05, 30 October 2009 Robbot (talk | contribs) m (33,123 bytes) (robot Adding: th:เทวดา) (cur) (prev) 21:26, 30 October 2009 Calatayudboy (talk | contribs) m (33,100 bytes) (→Etymology and usage) (cur) (prev) 00:28, 23 October 2009 Cybercobra (talk | contribs) (33,100 bytes) (improve hatnote) (cur) (prev) 11:54, 16 October 2009 MrOllie (talk | contribs) (33,174 bytes) (Undid revision 320106764 by Intelligentlove (talk)) (cur) (prev) 22:51, 15 October 2009 Intelligentlove (talk | contribs) (33,234 bytes) (cur) (prev) 21:53, 11 October 2009 Robdog360 (talk | contribs) (33,174 bytes) (cur) (prev) 20:03, 10 October
(cur) (prev) 00:45, 29 November 2009 BeneharoMencey (talk | contribs) (33,342 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 04:34, 21 November 2009 Ekwos (talk | contribs) (33,163 bytes) (→Distribution of belief in God: The map clearly puts Catholic Poland and Portugal on par with Orthodox Greece) (cur) (prev) 09:35, 8 November 2009 SwK (talk | contribs) (33,123 bytes) (Undid revision 324549887 by Elitehaxor7 (talk)) (cur) (prev) 23:57, 7 November 2009 Elitehaxor7 (talk | contribs) m (33,215 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 23:05, 30 October 2009 Robbot (talk | contribs) m (33,123 bytes) (robot Adding: th:เทวดา) (cur) (prev) 21:26, 30 October 2009 Calatayudboy (talk | contribs) m (33,100 bytes) (→Etymology and usage) (cur) (prev) 00:28, 23 October 2009 Cybercobra (talk | contribs) (33,100 bytes) (improve hatnote) (cur) (prev) 11:54, 16 October 2009 MrOllie (talk | contribs) (33,174 bytes) (Undid revision 320106764 by Intelligentlove (talk)) (cur) (prev) 22:51, 15 October 2009 Intelligentlove (talk | contribs) (33,234 bytes) (cur) (prev) 21:53, 11 October 2009 Robdog360 (talk | contribs) (33,174 bytes) (cur) (prev) 20:03, 10 October 2009 Brandmeister (talk | contribs) m (33,156 bytes) (cur) (prev) 08:15, 6 October 2009 FoxBot (talk | contribs) m (33,160 bytes) (robot Modifying: ckb:خودا) (cur) (prev) 21:28, 2 October 2009 Jusdafax (talk | contribs) m (33,158 bytes) (Reverted edits by Mr. Wood to last revision by AlexWaelde (HG)) (cur) (prev) 21:24, 2 October 2009 Mr. Wood (talk | contribs) (63 bytes) (fixed) (cur) (prev) 21:19, 2 October 2009 AlexWaelde (talk | contribs) m (33,158 bytes) (Reverted edits by Mr. Wood to last revision by TobeBot (HG)) (cur) (prev) 21:19, 2 October 2009 Mr. Wood (talk | contribs) (63 bytes) (←Replaced content with 'There's probably no God. Now stop worrying and enjoy your life.') (cur) (prev) 04:44, 1 October 2009 TobeBot (talk | contribs) m (33,158 bytes) (robot Adding: mr:देव) (cur) (prev) 06:35, 24 September 2009 CactusWriter (talk | contribs) (33,141 bytes) (rmv -- this is redundant to the following paragraph) (cur) (prev) 03:11, 23 September 2009 RibotBOT (talk | contribs) m (33,233 bytes) (robot Adding: pih:God) (cur) (prev) 22:43, 21 September 2009 B-80 (talk | contribs) (33,221 bytes) (cur) (prev) 17:35, 21 September 2009 Rowdy the Ant (talk | contribs) (33,188 bytes) (cur) (prev) 14:17, 19 September 2009 Ohnoitsjamie (talk | contribs) (33,129 bytes) (categories don't need to be in See Also section) (cur) (prev) 14:03, 19 September 2009 Leondumontfollower (talk | contribs) (33,531 bytes) (→References) (cur) (prev) 20:22, 16 September 2009 Tomsega (talk | contribs) (33,129 bytes) (Added point for equality after the previous final sentence of the opening section) (cur) (prev) 07:58, 12 September 2009 EmanWilm (talk | contribs) m (33,012 bytes) (link repair (You can help!) - fixing link for "Stewart Guthrie") (cur) (prev) 22:06, 11 September 2009 NeilN (talk | contribs) m (33,011 bytes) (Reverted 1 edit by Albatross117; Rv del. using TW) (cur) (prev) 22:05, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (30,595 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 22:04, 11 September 2009 Tgv8925 (talk | contribs) m (33,011 bytes) (Reverted edits by Albatross117 (talk) to last version by Chesdovi) (cur) (prev) 22:04, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (20,499 bytes) (→Theological approaches) (cur) (prev) 22:04, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (26,261 bytes) (→Existence of God) (cur) (prev) 22:04, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (27,770 bytes) (→Conceptions of God) (cur) (prev) 22:03, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (29,412 bytes) (→Etymology and usage) (cur) (prev) 21:55, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (33,011 bytes) (→Etymology and usage) (cur) (prev) 21:54, 11 September 2009 Albatross117 (talk | contribs) (33,019 bytes) (→Etymology and usage) (cur) (prev) 13:00, 9 September 2009 Chesdovi (talk | contribs) m (33,011 bytes) (Removed category Judaism (using HotCat)) (cur) (prev) 02:06, 9 September 2009 A3RO (talk | contribs) m (33,031 bytes) (Reverted edits by Mannumboy (talk) to last version by Amorymeltzer) (cur) (prev) 02:05, 9 September 2009 Mannumboy (talk | contribs) (33,060 bytes) (cur) (prev) 02:04, 9 September 2009 Mannumboy (talk | contribs) (33,046 bytes) (cur) (prev) 14:04, 28 August 2009 Amorymeltzer (talk | contribs) m (33,031 bytes) (Reverted edits by Zath42 (talk) to last version by Proofreader77) (cur) (prev) 13:46, 28 August 2009 Zath42 (talk | contribs) m (33,046 bytes) (→Names of God) (cur) (prev) 20:42, 23 August 2009 Proofreader77 (talk | contribs) (33,031 bytes) (→Anthropomorphism: Note: This is a subsection under "Scientific positions regarding God" THEREFORE I am removing mention of Xenophanes' philosophic mockery. See talk.) (cur) (prev) 18:49, 23 August 2009 Proofreader77 (talk | contribs) (33,348 bytes) (→Anthropomorphism: A mocking criticism of a concept - actually criticism of people for being as stupid as oxen for having the conception - should "rarely" be inserted as new lead sentence of an existing 1st para on a topic (1st cut at adjust)) (cur) (prev) 18:36, 23 August 2009 Proofreader77 (talk | contribs) m (33,241 bytes) (Undo myself - premature save Undid revision 309634689 by Proofreader77 (talk)) (cur) (prev) 18:05, 23 August 2009 Proofreader77 (talk | contribs) (33,250 bytes) (→Anthropomorphism: Xenophanes mocking joke (criticism) should rarely be inserted as the lead sentence of a paragraph) (cur) (prev) 16:22, 23 August 2009 Gabbe (talk | contribs) (33,241 bytes) (→Anthropomorphism: added citation as requested) (cur) (prev) 16:02, 23 August 2009 Paine Ellsworth
Revision history of Buddhism
22:31, 7 December 2009 Moby-Dick3000 (talk | contribs) (143,363 bytes) (→Life of the Buddha) (cur) (prev) 06:45, 7 December 2009 Colincbn (talk | contribs) m (143,343 bytes) (grmmr) (cur) (prev) 02:46, 7 December 2009 Moby-Dick3000 (talk | contribs) (143,342 bytes) (→Life of the Buddha) (cur) (prev) 02:42, 7 December 2009 Moby-Dick3000 (talk | contribs) (143,325 bytes) (→Life of the Buddha: The word "renunciate" here is vague.) (cur) (prev) 02:04, 7 December 2009 TXiKiBoT (talk | contribs) m (143,327 bytes) (robot Adding: tt:Буддизм) (cur) (prev) 00:33, 7 December 2009 Hybernator (talk | contribs) (143,304 bytes) (→See also) (cur) (prev) 15:08, 6 December 2009 Leggette (talk | contribs) (143,281 bytes) (→Life of the Buddha: more accurate terms) (cur) (prev) 14:58, 5 December 2009 Arjun024 (talk | contribs) (143,273 bytes) (→Buddhism today: removed uncited inane claim of having 1.7 adherents) (cur) (prev) 04:51, 2 December 2009 Mdsats (talk | contribs) (143,411 bytes) (→Speculation versus direct experience: Buddhist epistemology) (cur) (prev) 21:39, 1 December 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (143,097 bytes) (This kind of editing is approaching disruption. If it happens again, I will be forced to elevate this. (using NICE)) (cur) (prev) 21:32, 1 December 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,079 bytes) (cur) (prev) 10:06, 1 December 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (143,097 bytes) (The lead section is a /summary/ of the most important part of the article. It is not the place to make new or original claims. As the article states, the foundation for practice is the triple gem) (cur) (prev) 21:58, 30 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (142,983 bytes) (See talk) (cur) (prev) 14:15, 30 November 2009 Colincbn (talk | contribs) (143,097 bytes) (Undid revision 328802245 by KnowledgeAndVision (talk) Please provide referenceable sources for this.)
(cur) (prev) 14:12, 30 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (142,983 bytes) (The foundation of the practice is ethics. One need not take refuge in the triple gem in order to put the teachings into practice first.) (cur) (prev) 14:09, 30 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,097 bytes) (cur) (prev) 14:07, 30 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,090 bytes) (cur) (prev) 10:00, 29 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (143,102 bytes) (copyedit) (cur) (prev) 09:49, 29 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (143,096 bytes) (Birthplace not important for the lead) (cur) (prev) 09:46, 29 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (143,239 bytes) ("Spiritual philosophy" is a new age term. The philosophy is a realistic, practical one, similar to folk medicine. Buddha is a physician) (cur) (prev) 15:04, 28 November 2009 Ninly (talk | contribs) m (143,246 bytes) (cl) (cur) (prev) 14:50, 28 November 2009 Ninly (talk | contribs) m (143,349 bytes) (cleanup (oversights from last edit)) (cur) (prev) 11:56, 28 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,352 bytes) (Revert clumsy sounding wording) (cur) (prev) 06:45, 28 November 2009 Ninly (talk | contribs) (143,401 bytes) (stab at better wording of "philosophy" part in intro) (cur) (prev) 04:06, 28 November 2009 Ninly (talk | contribs) m (143,352 bytes) (unlink dates (avoid wikilinks to dates/eras not specifically germane to article content), cleanup) (cur) (prev) 21:57, 27 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,398 bytes) (cur) (prev) 21:36, 27 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,405 bytes) (cur) (prev) 21:34, 27 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,411 bytes) (cur) (prev) 21:30, 27 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (143,306 bytes) (cur) (prev) 14:18, 27 November 2009 Suddha (talk | contribs) (143,271 bytes) (→Karma: Cause and Effect: Mantra recitation as a solvent of negative karma) (cur) (prev) 14:04, 27 November 2009 Andi 3ö (talk | contribs) (142,997 bytes) (2nd attempt at compromise after discussion here) (cur) (prev) 11:31, 27 November 2009 Andi 3ö (talk | contribs) (142,936 bytes) (restored "Peter-ism" which is actually a community-ism agreed upon after long discussions. It introduces info necessary to understand the need for the various distinctions made in the article) (cur) (prev) 10:07, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) m (142,572 bytes) (rm of Buddhists) (cur) (prev) 09:59, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,585 bytes) (Add tertiary ref for this until we get other sources in the body) (cur) (prev) 09:54, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,443 bytes) (sometime) (cur) (prev) 09:53, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) m (142,434 bytes) (rm dupe the) (cur) (prev) 09:53, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,438 bytes) (Some changes) (cur) (prev) 09:12, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,170 bytes) (Peter-ism removed.) (cur) (prev) 09:10, 27 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,532 bytes) (Nothing about Buddhist modernism in this article. The lead is supposed to be a summary. Removed.) (cur) (prev) 00:11, 27 November 2009 Andi 3ö (talk | contribs) (142,626 bytes) (added some wikilinks) (cur) (prev) 23:34, 26 November 2009 Andi 3ö (talk | contribs) (142,541 bytes) (attempt at compromise for removed lead sentence) (cur) (prev) 13:11, 25 November 2009 Eu.stefan (talk | contribs) (142,236 bytes) (→Pre-sectarian Buddhism) (cur) (prev) 11:45, 22 November 2009 FeanorStar7 (talk | contribs) (142,296 bytes) (→Devotion: grammar and layout) (cur) (prev) 04:42, 21 November 2009 ImageRemovalBot (talk | contribs) (142,280 bytes) (Removing deleted image) (cur) (prev) 10:55, 18 November 2009 А. Погодин (talk | contribs) m (142,248 bytes) (→External links) (cur) (prev) 10:52, 18 November 2009 А. Погодин (talk | contribs) m (142,246 bytes) (→External links) (cur) (prev) 03:09, 18 November 2009 Ninly (talk | contribs) m (142,222 bytes) (rm POV sentence introducing lead paragraph) (cur) (prev) 10:23, 17 November 2009 KnowledgeAndVision (talk | contribs) (142,511 bytes) (cur) (prev) 23:38, 16 November 2009 Viriditas (talk | contribs) (142,629 bytes) (→External links: commonscat) (cur) (prev) 11:57, 16 November 2009 Skysmith (talk |

Sources


• (French) MEDEF on corporate governance
• Alice Sturgis; American Institute of Parliamentarians Revision Committee (2001), "19 Officers: The President ...", The standard code of parliamentary procedure (Fourth ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 162–165, ISBN 978-0071365130

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